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    Theory type Abstract
Ranking of Wikipedia articles in search engines revisited: fair ranking for reasonable quality? Ranking of Wikipedia articles in search engines revisited: fair ranking for reasonable quality? Analysis Abstract This paper aims to review the fiercely discussed question of whether the ranking of Wikipedia articles in search engines is justified by the quality of the articles. After an overview of current research on information quality in Wikipedia, a summary of the extended discussion on the quality of encyclopedic entries in general is given. On this basis, a heuristic method for evaluating Wikipedia entries is developed and applied to Wikipedia articles that scored highly in a search engine retrieval effectiveness test and compared with the relevance judgment of jurors. In all search engines tested, Wikipedia results are unanimously judged better by the jurors than other results on the corresponding results position. Relevance judgments often roughly correspond with the results from the heuristic evaluation. Cases in which high relevance judgments are not in accordance with the comparatively low score from the heuristic evaluation are interpreted as an indicator of a high degree of trust in Wikipedia. One of the systemic shortcomings of Wikipedia lies in its necessarily incoherent user model. A further tuning of the suggested criteria catalog, for instance, the different weighing of the supplied criteria, could serve as a starting point for a user model differentiated evaluation of Wikipedia articles. Approved methods of quality evaluation of reference works are applied to Wikipedia articles and integrated with the question of search engine evaluation.
A cultural and political economy of Web 2.0 A cultural and political economy of Web 2.0 Analysis
Explanation
In this dissertation, I explore Web 2.0, an umbrella term for Web-based software and

services such as blogs, wikis, social networking, and media sharing sites. This range of Web sites is complex, but is tied together by one key feature: the users of these sites and services are expected to produce the content included in them. That is, users write and comment upon blogs, produce the material in wikis, make connections with one another in social networks, and produce videos in media sharing sites. This has two implications. First, the increase of user-led media production has led to proclamations that mass media, hierarchy, and authority are dead, and that we are entering into a time of democratic media production. Second, this mode of media production relies on users to supply what was traditionally paid labor. To illuminate this, I explore the popular media discourses which have defined Web 2.0 as a progressive, democratic development in media production. I consider the pleasures that users derive from these sites. I then examine the technical structure of Web 2.0. Despite the arguments that present Web 2.0 as a mass appropriation of the means of media production, I have found that Web 2.0 site owners have been able to exploit users' desires to create content and control media production. Site owners do this by deploying a dichotomous structure. In a typical Web 2.0 site, there is a surface, where users are free to produce content and make affective connections, and there is a hidden depth, where new media capitalists convert user-generated content into exchange-values. Web 2.0 sites seek to hide exploitation of free user labor by limiting access to this depth. This dichotomous structure is made clearer if it is compared to the one Web 2.0 site where users have largely taken control of the products of their labor: Wikipedia. Unlike many other sites, Wikipedia allows users to see into and determine the legal, technical, and cultural depths of that site. I conclude by pointing to the different cultural formations made possible by eliminating the barrier between surface and depth in

Web software architecture.
Harnessing social networks to connect with audiences : if you build it, will they come 2.0? Harnessing social networks to connect with audiences : if you build it, will they come 2.0? Analysis Digital libraries offer users a wealth of online resources, but most of these materials remain hidden to potential users. Established strategies for outreach and promotion bring limited success when trying to connect with users accustomed to Googling their way through research. Social Networks provide an opportunity for connecting with audiences in the places they habitually seek information. The University of North Texas Libraries' Portal to Texas History (http://texashistory.unt. edu/) has experienced dramatic increases in Web usage and reference requests by harnessing the power of social networks such as Wikipedia and My Space.
On the remediation of Wikipedia to the iPod On the remediation of Wikipedia to the iPod Analysis The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a usability study of information search on mobile devices, seeking to understand mobile computing best practice in the design of library services. Three second-year undergraduate students took part in this semester long study. They are loaned {iPods} with a Wikipedia copy to use as desired. Usability data are drawn from search logs recording titles of the articles searched and an Internet-based survey completed by students. Students characterize the nature of information searched for on the Wikipedia {iPods} as recreational. Students did not utilize the {iPods} for academic research. Search logs show students viewed articles primarily about objects. The results of this paper do not show generalized principles of mobile search. More data collected from additional sets of users are needed in order to articulate principles of mobile search. If it is the case that students will primarily make use of mobile computing for recreational or leisurely purposes then library services on mobile computing platforms must be designed accordingly. The paper presents methods for the study of information search though mobile computing and poses questions resulting from this paper that require further study.
Mediating at the student-Wikipedia intersection Mediating at the student-Wikipedia intersection Analysis Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia. The encyclopedia is openly edited by registered users. Wikipedia editors can edit their own and others' entries, and some abuse of this editorial power has been unveiled. Content authors have also been criticized for publishing less than accurate content. Educators and students acknowledge casual use of Wikipedia in spite of its perceived inaccuracies. Use of the online encyclopedia as a reference resource in scholarly papers is still debated. The increasing popularity of Wikipedia has led to an influx of research articles analyzing the validity and content of the encyclopedia. This study provides an analysis of relevant articles on academic use of Wikipedia. This analysis attempts to summarize the status of Wikipedia in relation to the scope (breadth) and depth of its contents and looks at content validity issues that are of concern to the use of Wikipedia for higher education. The study seeks to establish a reference point from which educators can make informed decisions about scholarly use of Wikipedia as a reference resource.
Libraries and the mobile revolution: remediation=relevance Libraries and the mobile revolution: remediation=relevance Analysis Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to look at the big picture of where academic libraries fit into the mobile revolution. Design/methodology/approach - Using Jim Hahn's accompanying article, On the remediation of Wikipedia and the {iPod}, the author comments on what remediation means for the academic library culture as a whole. The reflections are based on observations of current trends in technology and the emergence of a mobile culture. A definition of this generation of library users is suggested - the {ING} (information now generation). Editorial in nature, the paper also discusses some new technologies and how they might be applicable to the technological growth of libraries. Findings - This reflection of current trends encourages librarians to look/listen, explore, apply, prevail when it comes to applying emerging technologies to the library world. Originality/value - The paper offers insights into how librarians can prepare themselves for the remediation revolution.
Are web-based informational queries changing? Are web-based informational queries changing? Analysis This brief communication describes the results of a questionnaire examining certain aspects of the Web-based information seeking practices of university students. The results are contrasted with past work showing that queries to Web search engines can be assigned to one of a series of categories: navigational, informational, and transactional. The survey results suggest that a large group of queries, which in the past would have been classified as informational, have become at least partially navigational. We contend that this change has occurred because of the rise of large Web sites holding particular types of information, such as Wikipedia and the Internet Movie Database.
Wiki tools in the preparation and support of e-learning courses Wiki tools in the preparation and support of e-learning courses Analysis Wiki tools, which became known mainly thanks to the Wikipedia encyclopedia, represent quite a new phenomenon on the Internet. The work presented here deals with three areas connected to a possible use of wiki tools for the preparation of an e-learning course. To what extent does Wikipedia.com contain terms necessary for scientific lectures at the university level and to what extent are they localised into other languages? The second area covers the use of Wikipedia as a knowledge base for e-learning study materials. Our experience with Enviwiki which originated within the {E-V} Learn project and its use in e-learning courses is presented. The third area aims at the use of wiki tools for building a knowledge base and sharing experience of the participants of an e-learning course.
What users see - structures in search engine results pages What users see - structures in search engine results pages Analysis This paper investigates the composition of search engine results pages. We define what elements the most popular web search engines use on their results pages (e.g., organic results, advertisements, shortcuts) and to which degree they are used for popular vs. rare queries. Therefore, we send 500 queries of both types to the major search engines Google, Yahoo, Live.com and Ask. We count how often the different elements are used by the individual engines. In total, our study is based on 42,758 elements. Findings include that search engines use quite different approaches to results pages composition and therefore, the user gets to see quite different results sets depending on the search engine and search query used. Organic results still play the major role in the results pages, but different shortcuts are of some importance, too. Regarding the frequency of certain host within the results sets, we find that all search engines show Wikipedia results quite often, while other hosts shown depend on the search engine used. Both Google and Yahoo prefer results from their own offerings (such as YouTube or Yahoo Answers). Since we used the .com interfaces of the search engines, results may not be valid for other country-specific interfaces.
The use and sharing of information from Wikipedia by high-tech professionals for work purposes The use and sharing of information from Wikipedia by high-tech professionals for work purposes Analysis {Purpose-The} aim of this paper is to focus on discovering whether high-tech professionals as a user community search for information from Wikipedia to fulfill their job duties and, if they do, how they share information with co-workers and clients. Design/methodology/approach - An online questionnaire was used, administered by a commercial provider. The questionnaire consisted of 15 Likert-scaled questions to assess participants' agreement with each question along with an optional open-ended explanation. A total of 68 participants successfully answered the questionnaire. Participants' Likert rating scores were analyzed by two-way {ANOVA}, one-way {ANOVA} and correlational analyses using {SPSS.} {Findings-The} analyses examined relationships among participants' characteristics, their use of information resources for research and teaching, information-sharing behaviors, and use/non-use of Wikipedia. Findings indicated that the participants treated Wikipedia as a ready reference for general information. Their concern is that Wikipedia only has a limited number of entries available at this point. They suggested that Wikipedia needed to improve the contribution and editorial process and to make it more rigorous. {Originality/value-Personal} information infrastructure affects how the high-tech professionals surveyed use-and-share information from Wikipedia for work. In the current situation, the participants consider Wikipedia to be a developing information resource and show less interest in contributing to it. The project is an exploratory study and more considerations are needed for this research area.
Wikipedia − Störfaktor oder Impulsgeber für die Lehre? Wikipedia − Störfaktor oder Impulsgeber für die Lehre? Analysis Due to their interactive and collaborative aspects, web 2.0 applications have become a common element of online-based forms of university teaching. University departments, service units and university projects increasingly apply wikis, weblogs or podcasts as information and communication media. Only seldomly have web 2.0 communities actively tried to establish networking structures with higher education institutions, though. The Wikipedia community forms an exception from this. Regardless of significant problems with the use of free contents in the university sector (e.g. problems with student plagiarism in term papers), lecturers increasingly tend to assess Wikipedia and other Wikimedia projects on their suitability within new forms of university teaching. This contribution addresses the question how university lecturers at German-language universities overcome widespread academic resentments against Wikipedia and in which way they make use of the online encyclopedia in their teaching practices.
Seeking health information online: does Wikipedia matter? Seeking health information online: does Wikipedia matter? Analysis Objective: To determine the significance of the English Wikipedia as a source of online health information. Design: The authors measured Wikipedia's ranking on general Internet search engines by entering keywords from {MedlinePlus}, {NHS} Direct Online, and the National Organization of Rare Diseases as queries into search engine optimization software. We assessed whether article quality influenced this ranking. The authors tested whether traffic to Wikipedia coincided with epidemiological trends and news of emerging health concerns, and how it compares to {MedlinePlus.} Measurements: Cumulative incidence and average position of Wikipedia {(R)} compared to other Web sites among the first 20 results on general Internet search engines {(Google} {(R)}, Google {UK} {(R)}, Yahoo {(R)}, and {MSN} {(R))}, and page view statistics for selected Wikipedia articles and {MedlinePlus} pages. Results: Wikipedia ranked among the first ten results in 71-85\% of search engines and keywords tested. Wikipedia Surpassed {MedlinePlus} and {NHS} Direct Online (except for queries from the latter on Google {UK)}, and ranked higher with quality articles. Wikipedia ranked highest for rare diseases, although its incidence in several categories decreased. Page views increased parallel to the occurrence of 20 seasonal disorders and news of three emerging health concerns. Wikipedia articles were viewed more often than {MedlinePlus} Topic (p = 0.001) but for {MedlinePlus} Encyclopedia pages, the trend was not significant (p = 0.07-0.10). Conclusions: Based on its search engine ranking and page view statistics, the English Wikipedia is a prominent Source of online health information compared to the other online health information providers studied.
An analysis of the delayed response to hurricane Katrina through the lens of knowledge management An analysis of the delayed response to hurricane Katrina through the lens of knowledge management Analysis In contrast to many recent large-scale catastrophic events, such as the Turkish earthquake in 1999, the 9/11 attack in New York in 2001, the Bali Bombing in 2002, and the Asian Tsunami in 2004, the initial rescue effort towards Hurricane Katrina in the U.S. in 2005 had been sluggish. Even as Congress has promised to convene a formal inquiry into the response to Katrina, this article offers another perspective by analyzing the delayed response through the lens of knowledge management (KM). A KM framework situated in the context of disaster management is developed to study three distinct but overlapping KM processes, namely, knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge reuse. Drawing from a total of more than 400 documents - including local, national, and foreign news articles, newswires, congressional reports, and television interview transcripts, as well as Internet resources such as wikipedia and blogs - 14 major delay causes in Katrina are presented. The extent to which the delay causes were a result of the lapses in KM processes within and across the government agencies are discussed.
Industrial ecology 2.0 Industrial ecology 2.0 Analysis Summary: Industrial ecology (IE) is an ambitious field of study where we seek to understand systems using a wide perspective ranging from the scale of molecules to that of the planet. Achieving such a holistic view is challenging and requires collecting, processing, curating, and sharing immense amounts of data and knowledge. We are not capable of fully achieving this due to the current state of tools used in IE and current community practices. Although we deal with a vastly interconnected world, we are not so good at efficiently interconnecting what we learn about it. This is not a problem unique to IE, and other fields have begun to use tools supported by the World Wide Web to meet these challenges. We discuss these sets of tools and illustrate how community driven data collection, processing, curation, and sharing is allowing people to achieve more than ever before. In particular, we discuss standards that have been created to allow for interlinking of data dispersed across multiple Web sites. This is currently visible in the Linking Open Data initiative, which among others contains interlinked datasets from the U.S. and U.K. governments, biology databases, and Wikipedia. Since the types of technologies and standards involved are outside the normal scope of work by many industrial ecologists, we attempt to explain the relevance, implications, and benefits through a discussion of many real examples currently on the Web. From these, we discuss several best practices, which can be enabling factors for how IE and the community can more efficiently and effectively meet its ambitions-an agenda for Industrial Ecology 2.0.
Using Wikipedia to teach information literacy Using Wikipedia to teach information literacy Analysis In May 2006, the University of Washington Libraries Digital Initiatives unit began a project to integrate the {UW} Libraries Digital Collections into the information workflow of our students by inserting links into the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The idea for this project grew out of our reading of {OCLC's} 2005 report Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources which states that only 2\% of college and university students begin searching for information at a library Web site. It is, therefore, incumbent upon Librarians to look for new ways to reach out to our users where they begin their information search. The explosive growth of Wikipedia made it a prime candidate for our efforts at pushing information about the Libraries out to where users conduct their research. It should be noted here that our digital collections are already harvested and heavily used by people all over the world; in fact, Google and its affiliates are the top referrers of people to our collections.
Forced transparency: corporate image on Wikipedia and what it means for public relations Forced transparency: corporate image on Wikipedia and what it means for public relations Analysis Collaboratively edited information on social media that circumvents traditional media gatekeepers poses a challenge to public relations practitioners. The online encyclopedia Wikipedia gives corporate critics the opportunity to shape the public image of major corporations. This longitudinal panel study analyzed the framing of 10 Fortune 500 companies on Wikipedia between 2006 and 2010. It was found through content analyses of tonality and topics of more than 3,800 sentences in the articles for Wal-Mart, Exxon Mobil, General Motors, Ford, General Electric, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, Citigroup, AIG, and IBM that the negativity increased over time and that the focus shifted from historical information to legal concerns and scandals. The findings show that public relations practitioners need to pay close attention to the forced transparency about their companies on Wikipedia.
Google analytics for measuring website performance Google analytics for measuring website performance Analysis Performance measurement of tourism websites is becoming a critical issue for effective online marketing. The aim of this article is to analyse the effectiveness of entries (visit behaviour and length of sessions) depending on their traffic source: direct visit, in-link entries (for instance, en.wikipedia.org), and search engine visits (for example, Google). For this purpose, time series analysis of Google Analytics data is made use of. This method could be interesting for any tourism website optimizer.
Art history: a guide to basic research resources Art history: a guide to basic research resources Analysis The purpose of this paper is to present basic resources and practical strategies for undergraduate art history research. The paper is based on the author's experience as both an art librarian and instructor for a core requirement art history course. The plan detailed in this paper covers every step of the research process, from exploring the topic to citing the sources. The resources listed, which include subscription databases as well as public Web sites, are deliberately limited to a manageable number. Additional topics include defining the scope of inquiry and making appropriate use of Internet resources such as Wikipedia. The paper provides the academic librarian with clear guidance on basic research resources in art history.
Access, claims and quality on the Internet - future challenges Access, claims and quality on the Internet - future challenges Analysis The vision of access to human knowledge has existed explicitly at least since the time of Aristotle In 1934, Otlet outlined a vision of comprehensive access to knowledge. Progress towards this vision entailed initial visions of hypertext, markup languages, the semantic web, Wikipedia and more recently a series of developments with respect to Open Source. A brief survey of these developments is provided. The rhetoric of the Internet insists that everything should be accessible by everyone at anytime. This poses obvious technical challenges and serious philosophical problems of method. If everything is accessible then how do we separate the chaff from the grain and how do we identify quality? Following a survey of important developments, this essay suggests five dimensions that need to be included in a future web: 1) variants and multiple claims; 2) levels of certainty in making a claim; 3) levels of authority in defending a claim; 4) levels of significance in assessing a claim; 5) levels of thoroughness in dealing with a claim. j 2005 National Instiute of Informatics.
High school research and critical literacy: social studies with and despite Wikipedia High school research and critical literacy: social studies with and despite Wikipedia Analysis Drawing on experiences in his social studies classroom, Houman Harouni evaluates both the challenges and possibilities of helping high school students develop critical research skills. The author describes how he used Wikipedia to design classroom activities that address issues of authorship, neutrality, and reliability in information gathering. The online encyclopedia is often lamented by teachers, scholars, and librarians, but its widespread use necessitates a new approach to teaching research. In describing the experience, Harouni concludes that teaching research skills in the contemporary context requires ongoing observations of the research strategies and practices students already employ as well as the active engagement of student interest and background knowledge.
Wikipedia and psychology: coverage of concepts and its use by undergraduate students Wikipedia and psychology: coverage of concepts and its use by undergraduate students Analysis The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is a frequently referred-to source of information for Internet users. A series of 3 studies examined Wikipedia's coverage of psychology-related concepts, examined how accessible Wikipedia's psychology content is when using Internet search engines, and described how both first-year and senior undergraduates use Wikipedia. The results demonstrated that Wikipedia's coverage of psychological topics was comprehensive and prominently displayed on the major search engines. In addition, a majority of undergraduate students reported referring to Wikipedia for both personal and school-related activities; however, few students reported using Wikipedia as a formal reference in academic work.
Wikipedia leeches? The promotion of traffic through a collaborative web format Wikipedia leeches? The promotion of traffic through a collaborative web format Analysis This article investigates the circulation of Wikipedia entries on the web in an effort to determine the integration of its collaborative model into existing proprietary web formats. In particular it details the use of Wikipedia content as 'tags' or information that is used to increase traffic to webpages through search engine results. Consequently, the article discusses the need to develop theoretical models that provide for an understanding of both content and form on the web, particularly as formatted by open-source legal frameworks.
Using wikis as an online health information resource Using wikis as an online health information resource Analysis Wikis can be a powerful online resource for the provision and sharing of information, with the proviso that information found on them should be independently verified. This article defines wikis and sets them in context with recent developments on the internet. The article discusses the use of Wikipedia and other wikis as potential sources of health information for nurses.
Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media Analysis The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very limited understanding of what the term Social Media exactly means; this article intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media.
Librarians on the verge of an epistemological breakdown Librarians on the verge of an epistemological breakdown Analysis During the enlightenment of eighteenth-century France, the encyclopedists created a systematic compilation of all human knowledge in order to dispel current disinformation imposed by kings and clergy. The resultant Encyclopedie has been considered the turning point of the enlightenment, where knowledge became power and the power was made accessible to the people. This article explores the digital phenomenon of Web 2.0 and questions whether we are experiencing another epistemological shift similar to the Encyclopedie. It then discusses teaching information literacy and gives practical ways for community college librarians to incorporate Wikipedia, Google, and other digital sources into their instruction to teach research skills and critical thinking.
The search queries that took Australian Internet users to Wikipedia The search queries that took Australian Internet users to Wikipedia Analysis This exploratory study analyses the content of the search queries that led Australian Internet users from a search engine to a Wikipedia entry. The study used transaction logs from Hitwise (www.hitwise.com) that matched search queries with data on the lifestyle of the searcher. A total sample of 1760 search terms, stratified by search term frequency and lifestyle, was drawn. Each search term was coded to indicate the subject of the query and weighted according to its position in the long tail distribution. Quantitative analysis was carried out using the statistical package {SPSS.} The results of the study suggest that Wikipedia is used more for lighter topics than for those of a more academic or serious nature. Significant differences among the various lifestyle segments were observed in the use of Wikipedia for queries on popular culture, cultural practice and science. The analysis provides some analytical purchase on the complex nature of information search and the difficulties inherent in assuming a valid distinction between information search and entertainment. It is suggested that the term leisure search be used to identify information search that is in itself a leisure activity and not a search for particular information.
RUOK? Blogging communication technologies during crises RUOK? Blogging communication technologies during crises Analysis This article compares communication technologies within and across crises, using evidence from contemporary postings in 68,022 blogs and news feeds and using a semi-automatic method to detect words that increase in usage during a crisis. Three case studies from 2005 are used: the July 7 London attacks, the New Orleans hurricane, and the {Pakistan-Kashmir} earthquake. The results highlight the information provision importance for bloggers of Web 2.0 resources such as Wikinews, the Wikipedia, and the Flickr picture sharing site, although these still play a minor role in comparison to the mass media. Some personal communication methods were also mentioned significantly, including {SMS} and cellphones, but the newest technologies of those mentioned were all Web 2.0. The importance of electronic communication for bloggers was found to depend on the nature of the crisis: For example, despite the heavy {Pakistan-Kashmir} earthquake death toll, there was relatively little interest in related communication issues from English language bloggers and news sources.
Legitimizing Wikipedia: how US national newspapers frame and use the online encyclopedia in their coverage Legitimizing Wikipedia: how US national newspapers frame and use the online encyclopedia in their coverage Analysis Within only a few years, the collaborative online encyclopedia Wikipedia has become one of the most popular websites in the world. At the same time, Wikipedia has become the subject of much controversy because of inaccuracies and hoaxes found in some of its entries. Journalists, therefore, have remained skeptical about the reliability and accuracy of Wikipedia's information, despite the fact that research has consistently shown an overall high level of accuracy compared to traditional encyclopedia. This study analyzed the framing of Wikipedia and its use as a news source by five US national newspapers over an eight-year period. A content analysis of 1486 Wikipedia references in The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, USA Today and The Christian Science Monitor found that Wikipedia is framed predominantly neutral and positive, and that it is increasingly used as a news source. By framing Wikipedia as credible and accurate, the newspapers help legitimize the use of the online encyclopedia. By allowing Wikipedia to influence their news agendas as a source, the newspapers confirm the growing reliability of Wikipedia.
What it means to ban Wikipedia: an exploration of the pedagogical principles at stake What it means to ban Wikipedia: an exploration of the pedagogical principles at stake Analysis This essay argues in favor of college instructors, especially in introductory classes, giving students the freedom to use Wikipedia entries in their research projects. It explores the pedagogy created by rigid prohibitions of potential sources, and argues that at stake are two chief dichotomies: one, students learning by engaging in a process vs. students producing a product, and two, students thinking individually and evaluating vs. students following rules. Within the discussion of these dichotomies is a call for instructors to emphasize evaluation of the "content" of research material rather than an author's credentials or other external markers.
A comparison of World Wide Web resources for identifying medical information A comparison of World Wide Web resources for identifying medical information Analysis The objective is to compare the utility of a search engine, Google, with other medical and non-medical, web-based resources for identifying specific medical information.This institutional review board-approved case cross-over study randomly assigned 89 medical student volunteers to use either Google or any other web-based resource (excluding Google) to research 10 advanced medical questions in a multiple choice exam. Primary outcome measures were resource efficiency (inversely related to number of links used to identify the correct answer for each question) and correctness (number of correct answers/total number of questions answered). For Google searches, the sites providing the information in question were also evaluated.The most frequently selected non-Google resources were Yahoo (n = 531), Ask.com (n = 110), and the interactive encyclopedia Wikipedia.com (n = 74). Google was more efficient than all other resources (1.50 vs. 1.94 mean links, P .0001), with no significant difference in correctness (97% [756/780] vs. 96% [747/780], P = .16). After a Google search, the four most common categories of sites that provided the correct answer were dictionary/encyclopedia sites, medical websites, National Library of Medicine resources, or journal websites. Yahoo was less efficient than Google (1.90 vs. 1.54 mean links, P .0001). However, non-Google search engines were more efficient than web sites (eg, Wikipedia, medical websites) and PubMed (1.87 vs. 2.54 mean links, P = .0004).Google is an efficient web resource for identifying specific medical information, by guiding users to an array of medical resources.
Informed investors and the Internet Informed investors and the Internet Analysis
Explanation
During the last decade the Internet has become an increasingly important source for gathering company related information. We employ Wikipedia editing frequency as an instrument that captures the degree in which the population is engaged with the processing of company-related information. We find that firms whose information is processed by the population more frequently are associated with lower analysts' forecast errors, smaller analysts' forecast dispersions, and significant changes in bid-ask spreads on analysts' recommendation days. These results indicate that information processing over the Internet is related to the degree to which investors and analysts are informed about companies.
Confessions of a librarian or: how I learned to stop worrying and love Google Confessions of a librarian or: how I learned to stop worrying and love Google Analysis Have you ever stopped to think about life before Google? We will make the argument that Google is the first manifestation of Web 2.0, of the power and promise of social networking and the ubiquitous wiki. We will discuss the positive influence of Google and how Google and other social networking tools afford librarians leading-edge technologies and new opportunities to teach information literacy. Finally, we will include a top seven list of googlesque tools that no librarian should be without.
Chemical information media in the chemistry lecture hall: a comparative assessment of two online encyclopedias Chemical information media in the chemistry lecture hall: a comparative assessment of two online encyclopedias Analysis The chemistry encyclopedia Roempp Online and the German universal encyclopedia Wikipedia were assessed by first-year university students on the basis of a set of 30 articles about chemical thermodynamics. Criteria with regard to both content and form were applied in the comparison; 619 ratings (48\% participation rate) were returned. While both encyclopedias obtained very good marks and performed nearly equally with regard to their accuracy, the average overall mark for Wikipedia was better than for Roempp Online, which obtained lower marks with regard to completeness and length. Analysis of the results and participants' comments shows that students attach importance to completeness, length and comprehensibility rather than accuracy, and also attribute less value to the availability of sources which validate an encyclopedia article. Both encyclopedias can be promoted as a starting reference to access a topic in chemistry. However, it is recommended that instructors should insist that students do not rely solely on encyclopedia texts, but use and cite primary literature in their reports.
How today's college students use Wikipedia for course-related research How today's college students use Wikipedia for course-related research Analysis Findings are reported from student focus groups and a large-scale survey about how and why students (enrolled at six different {U.S.} colleges) use Wikipedia during the course-related research process. A majority of respondents frequently used Wikipedia for background information, but less often than they used other common resources, such as course readings and Google. Architecture, engineering, and science majors were more likely to use Wikipedia for course-related research than respondents in other majors. The findings suggest Wikipedia is used in combination with other information resources. Wikipedia meets the needs of college students because it offers a mixture of coverage, currency, convenience, and comprehensibility in a world where credibility is less of a given or an expectation from today's students.
Wikipedia as an evidence source for nursing and healthcare students Wikipedia as an evidence source for nursing and healthcare students Analysis Where students once were confined to the University library, they are now at liberty to wander through cyber-space at will. There is evidence to suggest that student have been very quick to exploit the opportunities that the Internet can offer them. Students frequently cited search engines such as Google and Web 2.0 information sharing sites such as Wikipedia as the first places they look when seeking information for an assignment. Although a number of disciplines have accepted that Wikipedia can be viewed as an accurate and legitimate evidence source nurse educators tend to view Wikipedia with a degree of suspicion. The purpose of this paper is to carry out an exploratory study of health and health related content on a sample of Wikipedia site with the overall intention of assessing the quality of their source and supporting information. A 10% sample of health related Wikipedia entries were evaluated, with a total of 2598 references assessed. In total 1473 (56%) of the references citied on the Wikipedia pages reviewed could be argued to come from clearly identifiable reputable sources. This translates to a mean number of reputable sources of M=29 per Wikipedia entry. The quality of the evidence taken obtained from the 2500 plus references from over 50 Wikipedia pages was of sufficiently sound quality to suggest that, for health related entries, Wikipedia is appropriate for use by nursing students.
What is the quality of surgery-related information on the Internet? Lessons learned from a standardized evaluation of 10 common operations What is the quality of surgery-related information on the Internet? Lessons learned from a standardized evaluation of 10 common operations Analysis BACKGROUND: Although there is high-quality information on the Internet, it is difficult for patients to identify high-quality Web sites from those with inaccurate or misleading information. Our goal was to determine specific characteristics of Web search results that yield high-quality information and can be discerned easily by patients.

STUDY DESIGN: A validated rating system was used to evaluate surgical Web sites for appropriateness and adequacy. Web sites were identified using three search term types (technical, descriptive, and layperson) for 10 common surgical procedures. The top three sponsored (paid) and unsponsored (unpaid) Web site matches were identified. The search and analysis were repeated 1 month later.

RESULTS: One hundred forty-five Web sites were retrieved: 90 unsponsored and 55 sponsored. Unsponsored sites had higher mean composite scores than sponsored Web sites (50.6% versus 25%, p < 0.0001). Searches using layperson terms had lower mean composite scores compared with those using technical terms (36.9% versus 47.5%, p < 0.02). Professional Web sites had the highest mean composite scores (66.3%); legal Web sites had the lowest (6.3%). On regression analysis, unsponsored Web sites were associated with higher composite scores (p < 0.0001); number 1 match results (p < 0.02) and using layperson search terms (p < 0.052) were associated with lower mean composite scores. Repeat search results demonstrated no significant differences, except number 3 match results were no longer significant.

CONCLUSIONS: To optimize patients' Web searches, surgeons should recommend unsponsored sites; suggest professional society sites, if available; and provide technical search terms. But information on some topics, such as risks of not undergoing surgery, remains poor and requires discussion between the surgeon and patient.
Who writes the past? Student perceptions of Wikipedia knowledge and credibility in a world history classroom Who writes the past? Student perceptions of Wikipedia knowledge and credibility in a world history classroom Analysis The authors describe an inquiry-based learning project that required students in a first-year world history course to reflect on and analyze critically the nature of the knowledge found in Wikipedia--the free, open-content, rapidly evolving, internet encyclopedia. Using a rubric, the authors explored students' perceptions of the collaborative and community nature of Wikipedia as well as Wikipedia's accuracy, reputability, ease, and accessibility. Furthermore, they examined students' reflections on issues of plagiarism, responsibility, and whether Wikipedia qualifies as a scholarly source. Student perceptions were closely related to their level of intellectual and ethical development as defined by Perry (1970, 1998).
A five-year study of on-campus Internet use by undergraduate biomedical students A five-year study of on-campus Internet use by undergraduate biomedical students Analysis This paper reports on a five-year study (2005-2009) of biomedical students' on-campus use of the Internet. Internet usage logs were used to investigate students' sessional use of key websites and technologies. The most frequented sites and technologies included the university's learning management system, Google, email and Facebook. Email was the primary method of electronic communication. However, its use declined over time, with a steep drop in use during 2006 and 2007 appearing to correspond with the rapid uptake of the social networking site Facebook. Both Google and Wikipedia gained in popularity over time while the use of other key information sources, including the library and biomedical portals, remained low throughout the study. With the notable exception of Facebook, most 'Web 2.0' technologies attracted little use. The 'Net Generation' students involved in this study were heavy users of generalist information retrieval tools and key online university services, and prefered to use externally hosted tools for online communication. These and other findings have important implications for the selection and provision of services by universities.
Visualizing the overlap between the 100 most visited pages on Wikipedia for September 2006 to January 2007 Visualizing the overlap between the 100 most visited pages on Wikipedia for September 2006 to January 2007 Analysis This paper compares the monthly lists of the 100 most visited Wikipedia pages for the period of September 2006 to January 2007. {searchCrystal} is used to visualize the overlap between the five monthly Top 100 lists to show which pages are highly visited in all five months; which pages in four of the five months and so on. It is shown that almost 40 percent of a month's top 100 pages are visited in all five months, whereas 25 percent are highly visited only in a single month. The presented visualizations make it possible to gain quick insights into the overlap and topical relationships between the monthly lists.
Size matters: word count as a measure of quality on Wikipedia Size matters: word count as a measure of quality on Wikipedia Analysis Wikipedia, "the free encyclopedia", now contains over two million English articles, and is widely regarded as a high-quality, authoritative encyclopedia. Some Wikipedia articles, however, are of questionable quality, and it is not always apparent to the visitor which articles are good and which are bad. We propose a simple metric -- word count -- for measuring article quality. In spite of its striking simplicity, we show that this metric significantly outperforms the more complex methods described in related work.
Wikipedia as participatory journalism: reliable sources? Metrics for evaluating collaborative media as a news resource Wikipedia as participatory journalism: reliable sources? Metrics for evaluating collaborative media as a news resource Analysis Wikipedia is an Internet-based, user contributed encyclopedia that is collaboratively edited, and utilizes the wiki concept – the idea that any user on the Internet can change any page within the Web site, even anonymously. Paradoxically, this seemingly chaotic process has created a highly regarded reference on the Internet. Wikipedia has emerged as the largest example of participatory journalism to date – facilitating many-to-many communication among users editing articles, all working towards maintaining a neutral point of view — Wikipedia’s mantra. This study examines the growth of Wikipedia and analyzes the crucial technologies and community policies that have enabled the project to prosper. It also analyzes Wikipedia’s articles that have been cited in the news media, and establishes a set of metrics based on established encyclopedia taxonomies and analyzes the trends in Wikipedia being used as a source.
Wiki goes to war Wiki goes to war Analysis Since launching nearly six years ago, Wikipedia has exhibited sustained growth as an internet encyclopaedic resource. Amongst the millions of pages, the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict is one of the most revised and popular topics of all, ranking even above the Second World War. Why is this and what do Wikipedia and its daughter project, Wikinews, have to offer history, academia and journalism in their coverage of the Middle East?
Librarian perception of Wikipedia: threats or opportunities for librarianship? Librarian perception of Wikipedia: threats or opportunities for librarianship? Analysis The rapid rise of Wikipedia as an information source has placed the traditional role of librarians as information gatekeepers and guardians under scrutiny with much of the professional literature suggesting that librarians are polarized over the issue of whether Wikipedia is a useful reference tool. This qualitative study examines the perceptions and behaviours of National Library Board {(NLB)} of Singapore librarians with regards to information seeking and usage of Wikipedia. It finds that instead of polarized attitudes, most librarians, although cautious about using Wikipedia in their professional capacity, hold a range of generally positive attitudes towards the online en-cyclopaedia, believing that it has a valid role to play in the information seeking of patrons today. This is heartening because it suggests the existence within the librarian population of attitudes that can be tapped to engage constructively with Wikipedia. Three of these in particular are briefly discussed at the end of the article: Wikipedia's ability to appeal to the socalled digital natives its role as a source of {non-Western} information, and its potential to enable a revitalization of the role of librarians as public intellectuals contributing to a democratic information commons.
Beyond Google: how do students conduct academic research? Beyond Google: how do students conduct academic research? Analysis This paper reports findings from an exploratory study about how students majoring in humanities and social sciences use the Internet and library resources for research. Using student discussion groups, content analysis, and a student survey, our results suggest students may not be as reliant on public Internet sites as previous research has reported. Instead, students in our study used a hybrid approach for conducting course–related research. A majority of students leveraged both online and offline sources to overcome challenges with finding, selecting, and evaluating resources and gauging professors’ expectations for quality research.
EBay, Wikipedia, and the future of the footnote EBay, Wikipedia, and the future of the footnote Analysis This essay began as an attempt to explore the disconnect I perceived between the theoretical innovations in historiography that have occurred in theatre scholarship over the past few decades and the traditional scholarly structures in which most of us still deliver that thinking in print or through electronic media. Although most of us have abandoned positivist approaches to researching and writing history in favor of more situated, partial, and contingent strategies, we still employ footnotes and citations, positivist vestiges of an attempt to superimpose on humanistic inquiry the traditional scientific requirements of accuracy and reproducibility. But as I began to think about that conflict between theory and practice in our scholarship, I found I could not ignore the huge impact that the Internet has had, and will increasingly have, on our scholarly research and communication, and so I decided to trouble the issue of scholarly citation further by beginning an investigation of how the Internet can render traditional scholarly usage obsolete. I will briefly survey some of these digital transformations as a means to begin a disciplinary conversation about footnotes and citations in the digital world we now inhabit.
Information seeking with Wikipedia on the iPod touch Information seeking with Wikipedia on the iPod touch Analysis Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a usability study which inquired into undergraduate student information seeking with Wikipedia on the {iPod} touch. Design/methodology/approach - Data are drawn from {iPod} search logs and student survey responses. Search log data are coded with {FRBR} subject entities (group 3 entity sets) for analysis. Findings - Students characterize the overall nature of information searched for with the Wikipedia app to be for recreational and for short factual information. Recreational searching as a way in which undergraduate students utilize mobile technology is an earlier finding of Wikipedia {iPod} usage, and is verified as a trend of undergraduate student search using the {iPod.} All undergraduate student participants of the Wikipedia app on a mobile interface report this tool as helping to become more efficient in their research. Students viewed Wikipedia articles about people and concepts more so than other article types. Originality/value - Undergraduate student mobile search log analysis over a specific type of information resource on the {iPod} Touch is an original usability project. Previous mobile search log analysis analyzes thousands of unknown users and millions of anonymous queries, where the devices used for searching are not always identifiable and trends about touch screens cannot be ascertained.
From Encyclopædia Britannica to Wikipedia: generational differences in the perceived credibility of online encyclopedia information From Encyclopædia Britannica to Wikipedia: generational differences in the perceived credibility of online encyclopedia information Analysis
Explanation
This study examined the perceived credibility of user-generated (i.e. Wikipedia) versus more expertly provided online encyclopedic information (i.e. Citizendium, and the online version of the Encyclopædia Britannica) across generations. Two large-scale surveys with embedded quasi-experiments were conducted: among 11–18-year-olds living at home and among adults 18 years and older. Results showed that although use of Wikipedia is common, many people (particularly adults) do not truly comprehend how Wikipedia operates in terms of information provision, and that while people trust Wikipedia as an information source, they express doubt about the appropriateness of doing so. A companion quasi-experiment found that both children and adults assess information to be more credible when it originates or appears to originate from Encyclopædia Britannica. In addition, children rated information from Wikipedia to be less believable when they viewed it on Wikipedia's site than when that same information appeared on either Citizendium's site or on Encyclopædia Britannica's site. Indeed, content originating from Wikipedia was perceived by children as least credible when it was shown on a Wikipedia page, yet the most credible when it was shown on the page of Encyclopædia Britannica. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
Expediency-based practice? Medical students' reliance on Google and Wikipedia for biomedical inquiries Expediency-based practice? Medical students' reliance on Google and Wikipedia for biomedical inquiries Analysis Internet usage logs captured during self-directed learning sessions were used to determine how undergraduate medical students used five popular sites to locate and access biomedical resources. Students' perceptions of each site's usefulness and reliability were determined through a survey. Google and Wikipedia were the most frequently used sites despite students rating them as the least reliable of the five sites investigated. The library--the students' primary point of access to online journals--was the least used site, and when using Google less than 40% of pages or resources located by students were from 'high' quality sources. Students' use of all sites' search tools was unsophisticated. Despite being avid users of online information and search tools, the students targeted in this study appeared to lack the requisite information-seeking skills to make the most of online resources. Although there is evidence that these skills improved over time, a greater emphasis on information literacy skills training may be required to ensure that graduates are able to locate the best available evidence to support their professional practice.
The distorted mirror of Wikipedia: a quantitative analysis of Wikipedia coverage of academics The distorted mirror of Wikipedia: a quantitative analysis of Wikipedia coverage of academics Analysis Activity of modern scholarship creates online footprints galore. Along with traditional metrics of research quality, such as citation counts, online images of researchers and institutions increasingly matter in evaluating academic impact, decisions about grant allocation, and promotion. We examined 400 biographical Wikipedia articles on academics from four scientific fields to test if being featured in the world's largest online encyclopedia is correlated with higher academic notability (assessed through citation counts). We found no statistically significant correlation between Wikipedia articles metrics (length, number of edits, number of incoming links from other articles, etc.) and academic notability of the mentioned researchers. We also did not find any evidence that the scientists with better WP representation are necessarily more prominent in their fields. In addition, we inspected the Wikipedia coverage of notable scientists sampled from Thomson Reuters list of "highly cited researchers". In each of the examined fields, Wikipedia failed in covering notable scholars properly. Both findings imply that Wikipedia might be producing an inaccurate image of academics on the front end of science. By shedding light on how public perception of academic progress is formed, this study alerts that a subjective element might have been introduced into the hitherto structured system of academic evaluation.
Wikipedia - a key tool for global public health promotion Wikipedia - a key tool for global public health promotion Analysis The Internet has become an important health information resource for patients and the general public. Wikipedia, a collaboratively written Web-based encyclopedia, has become the dominant online reference work. It is usually among the top results of search engine queries, including when medical information is sought. Since April 2004, editors have formed a group called WikiProject Medicine to coordinate and discuss the English-language Wikipedia’s medical content. This paper, written by members of the WikiProject Medicine, discusses the intricacies, strengths, and weaknesses of Wikipedia as a source of health information and compares it with other medical wikis. Medical professionals, their societies, patient groups, and institutions can help improve Wikipedia’s health-related entries. Several examples of partnerships already show that there is enthusiasm to strengthen Wikipedia’s biomedical content. Given its unique global reach, we believe its possibilities for use as a tool for worldwide health promotion are underestimated. We invite the medical community to join in editing Wikipedia, with the goal of providing people with free access to reliable, understandable, and up-to-date health information.
Wikipedia as an encyclopaedia of life Wikipedia as an encyclopaedia of life Analysis In a 2003 essay E. O. Wilson outlined his vision for an "encyclopaedia of life" comprising "an electronic page for each species of organism on Earth", each page containing "the scientific name of the species, a pictorial or genomic presentation of the primary type specimen on which its name is based, and a summary of its diagnostic traits". Although biodiversity informatics has generated numerous online resources, including some directly inspired by Wilson's essay (e.g., iSpecies and EOL), we are still some way from the goal of having available online all relevant information about a species, such as its taxonomy, evolutionary history, genomics, morphology, ecology, and behaviour. While the biodiversity community has been developing a plethora of databases, some with overlapping goals and duplicated content, Wikipedia has been slowly growing to the point where it now has over 100,000 pages on biological taxa. My goal in this essay is to explore the idea that, largely independent of the aims of biodiversity informatics and well-funded international efforts, Wikipedia has emerged as potentially the best platform for fulfilling E. O. Wilson's vision.
Reliability of Wikipedia as a medication information source for pharmacy students Reliability of Wikipedia as a medication information source for pharmacy students Analysis Objective: To assess the accuracy, completeness, and referencing of medication information in Wikipedia compared with information found in the manufacturer's package insert.

Methods: Wikipedia articles for the 20 most frequently prescribed drugs per published lists of top 200 brand and generic drugs were evaluated. Four drug information residency-trained pharmacists independently assessed the articles for specific categories of information typically found in medication package inserts. Each category was evaluated for presence in the Wikipedia article, accuracy, completeness, and referencing (fully, partially, or none). Package inserts, Micromedex Drugdex Evaluations, Clinical Pharmacology, and Lexi-Comp databases were used to verify accuracy, and completeness was evaluated by comparing article contents to package inserts alone.

Results: Of the 20 categories of information assessed, a mean of twelve (range, 8–16) categories were present in each of the 20 Wikipedia articles. Categories most frequently absent were drug interactions and medication use in breastfeeding. No article contained all categories of information. Information on contraindications and precautions, drug absorption, and adverse drug events was most frequently found to be inaccurate; descriptions of off-label indications, contraindications and precautions, drug interactions, adverse drug events, and dosing were most frequently incomplete. Referencing was poor across all articles, with seven of the 20 articles not supported by any references.

Conclusion: Wikipedia does not provide consistently accurate, complete, and referenced medication information. Pharmacy faculty should actively recommend against our students' use of Wikipedia for medication information and urge them to consult more credible drug information resources.
Web links and search engine ranking: the case of Google and the query "Jew" Web links and search engine ranking: the case of Google and the query "Jew" Analysis The World Wide Web has become one of our more important information sources, and commercial search engines are the major tools for locating information; however, it is not enough for a Web page to be indexed by the search engines-it also must rank high on relevant queries. One of the parameters involved in ranking is the number and quality of links pointing to the page, based on the assumption that links convey appreciation for a page. This article presents the results of a content analysis of the links to two top pages retrieved by Google for the query "jew" as of July 2004: the "jew" entry on the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia and the home page of "Jew Watch a highly anti-Semitic site. The top results for the query "jew" gained public attention in April 2004 when it was noticed that the "Jew Watch" homepage ranked number 1. From this point on both sides engaged in "Googlebombing" (i.e. increasing the number of links pointing to these pages). The results of the study show that most of the links to these pages come from blogs and discussion links and the number of links pointing to these pages in appreciation of their content is extremely small. These findings have implications for ranking algorithms based on link counts and emphasize the huge difference between Web links and citations in the scientific community.
Does Wikipedia provide evidence-based health care information? A content analysis Does Wikipedia provide evidence-based health care information? A content analysis Analysis Patients and consumers are increasingly searching the Internet for medical and healthcare information. Using the criteria of evidence-based medicine the present study analyses the websites of Wikipedia and two major German statutory health insurances for content and presentation of patient information. 22 senior students of health sciences and education evaluated one topic each. In a first step, they identified the evidence for their specific question. Afterwards they used their results as reference for the evaluation of the three websites. Using a check list each student and a second researcher independently rated content and presentation of the information offered. All these websites failed to meet relevant criteria, and key information such as the presentation of probabilities of success on patient-relevant outcomes, probabilities of unwanted effects, and unbiased risk communication was missing. On average items related to the objectives of interventions, the natural course of disease and treatment options were only rated as partially fulfilled". Overall there were only minor differences between the three providers except for items related to the specific nature of the websites such as disclosure of authorship conflict of interest and support offers. In addition the Wikipedia information tended to achieve lower comprehensibility. In conclusion the quality of the healthcare information provided by Wikipedia and two major German statutory health insurances is comparable. They do not meet important criteria of evidence-based patient and consumer information though."
Google: to use, or not to use. What is the question? Google: to use, or not to use. What is the question? Analysis This article by Natasha Choolhun, with input from Emma Harris and

colleagues, considers how the proliferation of freely available legal information has affected standards of information literacy and research capability in the current legal environment. Real life examples are given to illustrate how staff in law firms are using resources such as Google and Wikipedia in preference over authoritative legal material. The phrase “Google Generation” is explored and consideration is given to how law schools and commercial firms are attempting to instil in their

lawyers principles of good information literacy and research skills.
Gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia, an unorthodox information source? Gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia, an unorthodox information source? Analysis This study examined gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia. Data were collected using a Web survey in spring 2008. The study used a convenient sample that consisted of students who had taken an introductory undergraduate course at a large public university in the Midwestern United States. A total of 134 out of 409 students participated in the study. As information consumers, male students used Wikipedia more frequently than their female counterparts did. With respect to the purposes of Wikipedia use, male students used Wikipedia for entertainment or idle reading more than their female counterparts, while there were no gender differences regarding Wikipedia use for other purposes. Male students were more likely to discount the risks involved when using Wikipedia information compared to their female counterparts. Furthermore, male students had higher ratings than female students regarding most aspects of Wikipedia, including outcome expectations, perceptions about its information quality, belief in the Wikipedia project itself, emotional states while using Wikipedia, confidence in evaluating information quality, and further exploration. Finally, there was no gender difference regarding the number of years of Wikipedia use. However, male students reported having more positive experiences with the information quality of Wikipedia than their female counterparts. Overall, the findings of this study were consistent with those of previous studies concerning gender. Given the acknowledgment of the knowledge value of Wikipedia in recent literature, it seems that there are more advantages to using Wikipedia than there are disadvantages. The current study shows that male students seem to enjoy such benefits more than female students and may have more opportunities to develop their information literacy skills than female students by actively using Wikipedia. This suggests that educators need to encourage female students in particular to explore Wikipedia strategically as an initial information source so that they can develop their information literacy skills for unconventional sources.
Meeting student writers where they are: using Wikipedia to teach responsible scholarship Meeting student writers where they are: using Wikipedia to teach responsible scholarship Analysis As students increasingly rely on digital media to locate information, composition instructors must incorporate into writing instruction critical evaluation of and reflection on students' use of Web content. A growing problem in the composition class is underdeveloped critical digital literacy skills. To become fully literate, students need more practice in thinking critically about the evidence they choose to use in their academic arguments. Wikipedia, the free, online encyclopedia that anyone can edit, is often cited as part of the problem. Instead of penalizing students for using Wikipedia as their go-to research source, writing faculty should encourage students to critically analyze this online encyclopedia in order to teach them how to think critically about all texts, online and in print. This article discusses how Wikipedia can be a valuable site for developing critical digital literacy skills for students.
In search of credibility: pupils' information practices in learning environments In search of credibility: pupils' information practices in learning environments Analysis Introduction. We aim to create an in-depth understanding of how pupils in upper secondary school negotiate the credibility and authority of information as part of their practices of learning. Particular focus is on the use of user-created resources, such as Wikipedia, where authorship is collective and/or hard to determine. Method. An ethnographic study was conducted in an upper secondary school class. Methods included observation, group interviews and information seeking diaries in the form of blogs. Analysis. The empirical material from the class room study was categorised and aggregated into five themes, which emerged as a result of the interplay between the empirical material and a perspective based in socio-cultural theory. Results. The pupils make credibility assessments based on methods developed for traditional media where, for instance, origin and authorship are important. They employ some user-created sources, notably Wikipedia, because these are easily available, but they are uncertain about when these sources should be considered credible. Conclusions. In an increasingly diverse media world, pupils' credibility assessments need to be informed by a socio-technical understanding of sources which takes both social and material aspects into account. The diversity of resources requires that pupils assess credibility for the particular situation in which they use information.
A tale of two tasks: editing in the era of digital literacies A tale of two tasks: editing in the era of digital literacies Analysis This article argues that editing in the era of digital literacies is a complex, collaborative endeavor that requires a sophisticated awareness of audience and purpose and a knowledge of multiple conventions for conveying meaning and ensuring accuracy. It compares group editing of an article about the New York Yankees baseball team on Wikipedia, the popular online encyclopedia, to the decontextualized proofreading task required of seventh graders on a state-level examination. It concludes that literacy instruction in schools needs to prepare students for the multiple dimensions of editing in both print and online environments, which means teaching them to negotiate meanings with others, not merely to correct surface-feature errors.
Dialogue through wikis: a pilot exploration of dialogic public relations and wiki websites Dialogue through wikis: a pilot exploration of dialogic public relations and wiki websites Analysis Wikis, a form of website increasingly popular since the growth of Wikipedia, are breaking new ground. Little scholarly research has investigated wikis and the potential for public relations. This study investigates how two health wikis (wikihealth.com and health content on wikipedia.com) facilitate dialogic principles. The pilot study found that both wiki sites exhibited the principles of dialogic public relations. Additionally, correlations were found between dialogic content, website value, and commitment to future usage.
Is Wikipedia unsuitable as a clinical information resource for medical students? Is Wikipedia unsuitable as a clinical information resource for medical students? Analysis Guiding students’ use of clinical information resources is an important role of a medical program, given the need to establish information literacy, evidence-based practice and lifelong learning habits amongst medical students. Observations that students were citing Wikipedia and concerns about the Google generation's information handling prompted us to compare this source with long-standing information resources (Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) 2008).
The citation of Wikipedia in judicial opinions The citation of Wikipedia in judicial opinions Analysis Wikipedia has been cited in over four hundred American judicial opinions. Courts have taken judicial notice of Wikipedia content, based their reasoning on Wikipedia entries, and decided dispositive motions on the basis of Wikipedia content. The impermanent nature of Wikipedia entries and their questionable quality raises a number of unique concerns. To date, no law review article has comprehensively examined the citation of Wikipedia in judicial opinions or considered its long-range implications for American law. This article reports the results of an exhaustive study examining every American judicial opinion that cites a Wikipedia entry. The article begins with a discussion of cases that cite Wikipedia for a significant aspect of the case before the court. The impact of these citations on litigants’ constitutional and procedural rights, the law of evidence, judicial ethics, and the judicial role in the common law adversarial system are explored. Part II discusses collateral references to Wikipedia entries. Part III proposes a set of best practices for when and how Wikipedia should be cited. Detailed statistics on the quality of Wikipedia entries cited in judicial opinions and the completeness and accuracy of citations to Wikipedia entries are provided. The article concludes with a discussion of the impact of Wikipedia citations in judicial opinions on the future of the law.
Young people's perceptions and usage of Wikipedia Young people's perceptions and usage of Wikipedia Analysis Introduction. This exploratory study investigated the perception and usage of Wikipedia among young people. Method. Fifteen respondents aged thirteen to twenty-four were selected for the study. The respondents were composed of secondary and tertiary students, and recent tertiary level graduates. An interview schedule was designed to explore user experiences at three levels: the initial encounter with Wikipedia, the time when the user felt comfortable with Wikipedia, and the user's current state. Questions were open-ended and semi-structured to allow for probing. Interviews were conducted over a span of two weeks with each interview lasting 30-45 minutes. Follow-up questions were asked of some of the respondents for clarification purposes. Analysis. Interview data was used to test Wikipedia, viewed as a technology, against the model of technological appropriation developed by Carroll et al. for their own study of mobile phone use among young people. Results. We found that although Wikipedia is initially attractive for young people, it generally fails to become deeply integrated (appropriated) into the everyday lives of users, instead remaining an instrumental tool for the fulfilment of a narrow range of tasks. We also found that over time respondents do become aware of the problems of accuracy that Wikipedia poses. Conclusions. Given that Wikipedia has not assumed the role of a key technology in the lives of the young people studied here, concern over its use by educators may be overstated. Also, the fact that the respondents were aware of the drawbacks to its use should make the message of the need for checking alternative sources an easier one to impart to students. The key conclusion, however, is the need for those wishing to design more popular information systems to take into account the deeper needs of users to experiment with technology in order to make it fit their lives rather than the other way round. This is something that even Wikipedia, it seems, has been unable to achieve.
Why I love/hate Wikipedia: reflections upon (not quite) subjugated knowledges Why I love/hate Wikipedia: reflections upon (not quite) subjugated knowledges Analysis Wikipedia is a well-known online encyclopedia, whose content is contributed and edited by volunteers. Its use by students for their research is, to be polite, controversial. Is Wikipedia really evil, or is it a teaching opportunity in disguise, a representation of some deeper cultural change? We present first-hand accounts from two different disciplines, computer science and anthropology, to illustrate how experiences with Wikipedia may be crossdisciplinary. We use these to reflect upon the nature of Wikipedia and its role in teaching.
What is popular on Wikipedia and why? What is popular on Wikipedia and why? Analysis This paper analyzes which pages and topics are the most popular on Wikipedia and why. For the period of September 2006 to January 2007, the 100 most visited Wikipedia pages in a month are identified and categorized in terms of the major topics of interest. The observed topics are compared with search behavior on the Web. Search queries, which are identical to the titles of the most popular Wikipedia pages, are submitted to major search engines and the positions of popular Wikipedia pages in the top 10 search results are determined. The presented data helps to explain how search engines, and Google in particular, fuel the growth and shape what is popular on Wikipedia.
Junior physician's use of Web 2.0 for information seeking and medical education: a qualitative study Junior physician's use of Web 2.0 for information seeking and medical education: a qualitative study Analysis Background: Web 2.0 internet tools and methods have attracted considerable attention as a means to improve health care delivery. Despite evidence demonstrating their use by medical professionals, there is no detailed research describing how Web 2.0 influences physicians' daily clinical practice. Hence this study examines Web 2.0 use by 35 junior physicians in clinical settings to further understand their impact on medical practice. Method: Diaries and interviews encompassing 177 days of internet use or 444 search incidents, analyzed via thematic analysis. Results: Results indicate that 53\% of internet visits employed user-generated or Web 2.0 content, with Google and Wikipedia used by 80\% and 70\% of physicians, respectively. Despite awareness of information credibility risks with Web 2.0 content, it has a role in information seeking for both clinical decisions and medical education. This is enabled by the ability to cross check information and the diverse needs for background and non-verified information. Conclusion: Web 2.0 use represents a profound departure from previous learning and decision processes which were normally controlled by senior medical staff or medical schools. There is widespread concern with the risk of poor quality information with Web 2.0 use, and the manner in which physicians are using it suggest effective use derives from the mitigating actions by the individual physician. Three alternative policy options are identified to manage this risk and improve efficiency in Web 2.0's use.
Evaluating authoritative sources using social networks: an insight from Wikipedia Evaluating authoritative sources using social networks: an insight from Wikipedia Design and action Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to evaluating contributions in collaborative authoring environments, and in particular, Wikis using social network measures. Design/methodology/approach - A social network model for Wikipedia has been constructed, and metrics of importance such as centrality have been defined. Data has been gathered from articles belonging to the same topic using a web crawler, in order to evaluate the outcome of the social network measures in the articles. Findings - Finds that the question of the reliability regarding Wikipedia content is a challenging one and as Wikipedia grows, the problem becomes more demanding, especially for topics with controversial views such as politics or history. Practical implications - It is believed that the approach presented here could be used to improve the authoritativeness of content found in Wikipedia and similar sources. Originality/value - This work tries to develop a network approach to the evaluation of Wiki contributions, and approaches the problem of quality Wikipedia content from a social network point of view.
On the measurability of information quality On the measurability of information quality Design and action The notion of information quality (IQ) has been investigated extensively in recent years. Much of this research has been aimed at conceptualizing IQ and its underlying dimensions (e.g., accuracy, completeness) and at developing instruments for measuring these quality dimensions. However, less attention has been given to the measurability of IQ. The objective of this study is to explore the extent to which a set of IQ dimensions—accuracy, completeness, objectivity, and representation—lend themselves to reliable measurement. By reliable measurement, we refer to the degree to which independent assessors are able to agree when rating objects on these various dimensions. Our study reveals that multiple assessors tend to agree more on certain dimensions (e.g., accuracy) while finding it more difficult to agree on others (e.g., completeness).We argue that differences in measurability stem from properties inherent to the quality dimension (i.e., the availability of heuristics that make the assessment more tangible) as well as on assessors’ reliance on these cues. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Measuring article quality in Wikipedia: models and evaluation Measuring article quality in Wikipedia: models and evaluation Design and action Wikipedia has grown to be the world largest and busiest free encyclopedia, in which articles are collaboratively written and maintained by volunteers online. Despite its success as a means of knowledge sharing and collaboration, the public has never stopped criticizing the quality of Wikipedia articles edited by non-experts and inexperienced contributors. In this paper, we investigate the problem of assessing the quality of articles in collaborative authoring of Wikipedia. We propose three article quality measurement models that make use of the interaction data between articles and their contributors derived from the article edit history. Our basic model is designed based on the mutual dependency between article quality and their author authority. The PeerReview model introduces the review behavior into measuring article quality. Finally, our ProbReview models extend PeerReview with partial reviewership of contributors as they edit various portions of the articles. We conduct experiments on a set of well-labeled Wikipedia articles to evaluate the effectiveness of our quality measurement models in resembling human judgement.
Investigation into trust for collaborative information repositories: a Wikipedia case study Investigation into trust for collaborative information repositories: a Wikipedia case study Design and action As collaborative repositories grow in popularity and use, issues concerning the quality and trustworthiness of information grow. Some current popular repositories contain contributions from a wide variety of users, many of which will be unknown to a potential end user. Additionally the content may change rapidly and information that was previously contributed by a known user may be updated by an unknown user. End users are now faced with more challenges as they evaluate how much they may want to rely on information that was generated and updated in this manner. A trust management layer has become an important requirement for the continued growth and acceptance of collaboratively developed and maintained information resources. In this paper, we will describe our initial investigations into designing and implementing an extensible trust management layer for collaborative and/or aggregated repositories of information. We leverage our work on the Inference Web explanation infrastructure and exploit and expand the Proof Markup Language to handle a simple notion of trust. Our work is designed to support representation, computation, and visualization of trust information. We have grounded our work in the setting of Wikipedia. In this paper, we present our vision, expose motivations, relate work to date on trust representation, and present a trust computation algorithm with experimental results. We also discuss some issues encountered in our work that we found interesting.
Extracting content holes by comparing community-type content with Wikipedia Extracting content holes by comparing community-type content with Wikipedia Design and action Purpose – Community-type content that are social network services and blogs are maintained by communities of people. Occasionally, community members do not understand the nature of the content from multiple perspectives, and so the volume of information is often inadequate. The authors thus consider it necessary to present users with missing information. The purpose of this paper is to search for the content “hole” where users of community-type content missed information.

Design/methodology/approach – The proposed content hole is defined as different information that is obtained by comparing community-type content with other content, such as other community-type content, other conventional web content, and real-world content. The paper suggests multiple types of content holes and proposes a system that compares community-type content with Wikipedia articles and identifies the content hole. The paper first identifies structured keywords from the community-type content, and extracts target articles from Wikipedia using the keywords. It then extracts other related articles from Wikipedia using the link graph. Finally, it compares community-type content with the articles in Wikipedia and extracts and presents content holes.

Findings – Information retrieval looks for similar data. In contrast, a content-hole search looks for information that is different. This paper defines the type of content hole on the basis of viewpoints. The proposed viewpoints are coverage, detail, semantics, and reputation.

Originality/value – The paper proposes a system for extracting coverage content holes. The system compares community-type content with Wikipedia and extracts content holes in the community-type content.
Puppy smoothies: improving the reliability of open, collaborative wikis Puppy smoothies: improving the reliability of open, collaborative wikis Design and action The reliability of information collected from at large Internet users by open collaborative wikis such as Wikipedia has been a subject of widespread debate. This paper provides a practical proposal for improving user confidence in wiki information by coloring the text of a wiki article based on the venerability of the text. This proposal relies on the philosophy that bad information is less likely to survive a collaborative editing process over large numbers of edits. Colorization would provide users with a clear visual cue as to the level of confidence that they can place in particular assertions made within a wiki article.
The gene wiki: community intelligence applied to human gene annotation The gene wiki: community intelligence applied to human gene annotation Design and action Annotating the function of all human genes is a critical, yet formidable, challenge. Current gene annotation efforts focus on centralized curation resources, but it is increasingly clear that this approach does not scale with the rapid growth of the biomedical literature. The Gene Wiki utilizes an alternative and complementary model based on the principle of community intelligence. Directly integrated within the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, the goal of this effort is to build a gene-specific review article for every gene in the human genome, where each article is collaboratively written, continuously updated and community reviewed. Previously, we described the creation of Gene Wiki 'stubs' for approximately 9000 human genes. Here, we describe ongoing systematic improvements to these articles to increase their utility. Moreover, we retrospectively examine the community usage and improvement of the Gene Wiki, providing evidence of a critical mass of users and editors. Gene Wiki articles are freely accessible within the Wikipedia web site, and additional links and information are available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki.
Addressing gaps in knowledge while reading Addressing gaps in knowledge while reading Design and action Reading is a common everyday activity for most of us. In this article, we examine the potential for using Wikipedia to fill in the gaps in one's own knowledge that may be encountered while reading. If gaps are encountered frequently while reading, then this may detract from the reader's final understanding of the given document. Our goal is to increase access to explanatory text for readers by retrieving a single Wikipedia article that is related to a text passage that has been highlighted. This approach differs from traditional search methods where the users formulate search queries and review lists of possibly relevant results. This explicit search activity can be disruptive to reading. Our approach is to minimize the user interaction involved in finding related information by removing explicit query formulation and providing a single relevant result. To evaluate the feasibility of this approach, we first examined the effectiveness of three contextual algorithms for retrieval. To evaluate the effectiveness for readers, we then developed a functional prototype that uses the text of the abstract being read as context and retrieves a single relevant Wikipedia article in response to a passage the user has highlighted. We conducted a small user study where participants were allowed to use the prototype while reading abstracts. The results from this initial study indicate that users found the prototype easy to use and that using the prototype significantly improved their stated understanding and confidence in that understanding of the academic abstracts they read.
Contextual retrieval of single Wikipedia articles to support the reading of academic abstracts Contextual retrieval of single Wikipedia articles to support the reading of academic abstracts Design and action Google style search engines are currently some of the most popular tools that people use when they are looking for information. There are a variety of reasons that people can have for conducting a search, although, these reasons can generally be distilled down to users being engaged in a task and developing an information need that impedes them from completing that task at a level which is satisfactory to them. The Google style search engine, however, is not always the most appropriate tool for every user task. In this thesis, our approach to search differs from the traditional search engine as we focus on providing support to users who are reading academic abstracts. When people do not understand a passage in the abstract they are reading, they often look for more detailed information or a definition. Presenting them with a list of possibly relevant search results, as a Google style search would, may not immediately meet this information need. In the case of reading, it is logical to hypothesize that userswould prefer to receive a single document containing the information that they need. Developed in this thesis are retrieval algorithms that use the abstract being read along with the passage that the user is interested in to retrieve a single highly related article from Wikipedia. The top performing algorithm from the experiments conducted in this thesis is able to retrieve an appropriate article 77\% of the time. This algorithm was deployed in a prototype reading support tool. {LiteraryMark}, in order to investigate the usefulness of such a tool. The results from the user experiment conducted in this thesis indicate that {LiteraryMark} is able to significantly improve the understanding and confidence levels of people reading abstracts.
Computing trust from revision history Computing trust from revision history Design and action A new model of distributed, collaborative information evolution is emerging. As exemplified in Wikipedia, online collaborative information repositories are being generated, updated, and maintained by a large and diverse community of users. Issues concerning trust arise when content is generated and updated by diverse populations. Since these information repositories are constantly under revision, trust determination is not simply a static process. In this paper, we explore ways of utilizing the revision history of an article to assess the trustworthiness of the article. We then present an experiment where we used this revision history-based trust model to assess the trustworthiness of a chain of successive versions of articles in Wikipedia and evaluated the assessments produced by the model.
Computational trust in web content quality: a comparative evaluation on the Wikipedia project Computational trust in web content quality: a comparative evaluation on the Wikipedia project Design and action The problem of identifying useful and trustworthy information on the World Wide Web is becoming increasingly acute as new tools such as wikis and blogs simplify and democratize publication. It is not hard to predict that in the future the direct reliance on this material will expand and the problem of evaluating the trustworthiness of this kind of content become crucial. The Wikipedia project represents the most successful and discussed example of such online resources. In this paper we present a method to predict Wikipedia articles trustworthiness based on computational trust techniques and a deep domain-specific analysis. Our assumption is that a deeper understanding of what in general defines high-standard and expertise in domains related to Wikipedia h i.e. content quality in a collaborative environment h mapped onto Wikipedia elements would lead to a complete set of mechanisms to sustain trust in Wikipedia context. We present a series of experiment. The first is a study-case over a specific category of articles; the second is an evaluation over 8 000 articles representing 65\% of the overall Wikipedia editing activity. We report encouraging results on the automated evaluation of Wikipedia content using our domain-specific expertise method. Finally, in order to appraise the value added by using domain-specific expertise, we compare our results with the ones obtained with a pre-processed cluster analysis, where complex expertise is mostly replaced by training and automatic classification of common features.
The perspectives of higher education faculty on Wikipedia The perspectives of higher education faculty on Wikipedia Explanation Purpose - This purpose of this paper is to investigate whether higher education instructors use information from Wikipedia for teaching and research. Design/methodology/approach - This is an explorative study to identify important factors regarding user acceptance and use of emerging information resources and technologies in the academic community. A total of 201 participants around the world answered an online questionnaire administered by a commercial provider. The questionnaire consisted of 16 Likert-scaled questions to assess participants' agreement with each question along with an optional open-ended explanation. Findings - The findings of this project confirm that internet access was related to faculty technology use. Online resources and references were ranked the first choice by the participants when searching for familiar and unfamiliar topics. The investigator found that participants' academic ranking status, frequency of e-mail use and academic discipline were related to their use of online databases, web-based information and directing students to information from the Web. Although the participants might often use online resources for research and teaching, Wikipedia's credibility was the participants' major concern. Research limitations/implications - This project is an exploratory study and more considerations are needed for this research area. Originality/value - The paper shows that participants who used online databases more often showed a negative attitude toward Wikipedia. Those participants who used Wikipedia for teaching and research also allowed students to use information from Wikipedia and were more likely to be contributors to Wikipedia.
Readers are not free-riders: reading as a form of participation on Wikipedia Readers are not free-riders: reading as a form of participation on Wikipedia Explanation The success of Wikipedia as a large-scale collaborative effort has spurred researchers to examine the motivations and behaviors of Wikipedia's participants. However, this research has tended to focus on active involvement rather than more common forms of participation such as reading. In this paper we argue that Wikipedia's readers should not all be characterized as free-riders -- individuals who knowingly choose to take advantage of others' effort. Furthermore, we illustrate how readers provide a valuable service to Wikipedia. Finally, we use the notion of legitimate peripheral participation to argue that reading is a gateway activity through which newcomers learn about Wikipedia. We find support for our arguments in the results of a survey of Wikipedia usage and knowledge. Implications for future research and design are discussed.
How and why do college students use Wikipedia? How and why do college students use Wikipedia? Explanation The purposes of this study were to explore college students' perceptions, uses of, and motivations for using Wikipedia and to understand their information behavior concerning Wikipedia based on social cognitive theory (SCT). A Web survey was used to collect data in the spring of 2008. The study sample consisted of students from an introductory undergraduate course at a large public university in the midwestern United States. A total of 134 students participated in the study, resulting in a 32.8% response rate. The major findings of the study include the following: Approximately one-third of the students reported using Wikipedia for academic purposes. The students tended to use Wikipedia for quickly checking facts and finding background information. They had positive past experiences with Wikipedia; however, interestingly, their perceptions of its information quality were not correspondingly high. The level of their confidence in evaluating Wikipedia's information quality was, at most, moderate. Respondents' past experience with Wikipedia, their positive emotional state, their disposition to believe information in Wikipedia,and information utility were positively related to their outcome expectations of Wikipedia. However, among the factors affecting outcome expectations, only information utility and respondents' positive emotions toward Wikipedia were related to their use of it. Further, when all of the independent variables, including the mediator, outcome expectations, were considered, only the variable information utility was related to Wikipedia use, which may imply a limited applicability of SCT to understanding Wikipedia use. However, more empirical evidence is needed to determine the applicability of this theory to Wikipedia use. Finally, this study supports the knowledge value of Wikipedia (Fallis, 2008), despite students' cautious attitudes toward Wikipedia. The study suggests that educators and librarians need to provide better guidelines for using Wikipedia, rather than prohibiting Wikipedia use altogether.
Academics and Wikipedia: reframing Web 2.0 as a disruptor of traditional academic power-knowledge arrangements Academics and Wikipedia: reframing Web 2.0 as a disruptor of traditional academic power-knowledge arrangements Explanation Purpose - There is much hype about academics' attitude to Wikipedia. This paper seeks to go beyond anecdotal evidence by drawing on empirical research to ascertain how academics respond to Wikipedia and the implications these responses have for the take-up of Web 2.0+. It aims to test the hypothesis that Web 2.0+, as a platform built around the socially constructed nature of knowledge, is inimical to conventional power-knowledge arrangements in which academics are traditionally positioned as the key gatekeepers to knowledge. Design/methodology/approach - The research relies on quantitative and qualitative data to provide an evidence-based analysis of the attitudes of academics towards the student use of Wikipedia and towards Web 2.0+. These data were provided via an online survey made available to a number of universities in Australia and abroad. As well as the statistical analysis of quantitative data, qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis using relational coding. Findings - The data by and large demonstrate that Wikipedia continues to be a divisive issue among academics, particularly within the soft sciences. However, Wikipedia is not as controversial as popular publicity would lead one to believe. Many academics use it extensively though cautiously themselves, and therefore tend to support a cautious approach to its use by students. However, evidence supports the assertion that there is an implicit if not explicit awareness among academics that Wikipedia, and possibly by extension Web 2.0+, are disruptors of conventional academic power-knowledge arrangements. Practical implications - It is clear that academics respond differently to the disruptive effects that Web 2.0+has on the political economy of academic knowledge construction. Contrary to popular reports, responses to Wikipedia are not overwhelmingly focused on resistance but encompass both cautious and creative acceptance. It is becoming equally clear that the increasing uptake of Web 2.0+in higher education makes it inevitable that academics will have to address the political consequences of this reframing of the ownership and control of academic knowledge production. Originality/value - The paper demonstrates originality and value by providing a unique, evidence-based insight into the different ways in which academics respond to Wikipedia as an archetypal Web 2.0+application and by positioning Web 2.0+within the political economy of academic knowledge construction.
Essays analyzing blogs and Wikipedia Essays analyzing blogs and Wikipedia Explanation Still-nascent as an Internet phenomenon, blogs have paved the way for the resurrection of the world's oldest form of marketing: word-of-mouth. Firms are realizing that including promotional messages in the blog content itself may be an effective way to market their products, in addition to banner ads on blogsites. Do firms have the option to buy out blogger support? Do bloggers have the incentive to mislead their audiences in response to sponsorship offers? Should blog readers continue to believe bloggers, even when they face uncertainty or deception? In essay 1, we model promotional blogging within a game-theoretic framework to answer these questions, and solve for Bayesian Nash equilibria. Surprisingly, we find that blog sponsorships are feasible and likely, particularly when a firm with existing goodwill will promote its lower quality product. We discuss managerial implications and provide insights for policy design to govern blog marketing. Wikipedia is defined by its founders as the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit." This property we argue makes Wikipedia a public good and hence subject to underprovision. A puzzling feature of Wikipedia however is its enormous size at roughly seven times that of its commercial counterparts. What is driving this growth? And how can we assess the reliability of this giant encyclopedia arising solely from free-editing? In essay 2 we model contribution to Wikipedia and its reliability. We demonstrate that Wikipedia is indeed subject to free-riding and offer a novel explanation for the mitigation of under-provision under such circumstances. We also find that the public-good feature of Wikipedia and free-riding introduce a lower-bound in the quality of Wikipedia. We identify Wikipedia as part of a general Internet phenomenon that we call the Collaborative Net and that includes features such as citizen journalism and online reviews."
Struggles online over the meaning of 'down's syndrome': a 'dialogic' interpretation Struggles online over the meaning of 'down's syndrome': a 'dialogic' interpretation Explanation Bakhtin's suggestion that a unified truth demands a 'multiplicity of consciousnesses' seems particularly relevant in the 'globally connected age'. At a time when the {DIY/'punk} ethic' seems to prevail online, and Wikipedia and blogging means that anyone with access to the Internet can enter into public deliberation, it is worth considering the potential for mass communication systems to create meaningful changes in the way that 'disability' is theorized. Based on the findings of qualitative research, this study explores competing interpretations of disability, specifically dialogue online over the meaning of Down's syndrome, from the vantage point of an approach towards language analysis that emanates from the work of the Bakhtin Circle. It will be shown that, suitably revised and supplemented, elements of Bakhtinian theory provide powerful tools for understanding online relations and changes in the notion of disability. It will also be shown that, while activists in the disabled people's movement have managed to effect modest changes to the way that disability is theorized, both online and in the 'real world', there remains a great deal still to be achieved. This study allows us to understand better the social struggles faced by disabled people and the opportunities open to them.
Credibility judgment and verification behavior of college students concerning Wikipedia Credibility judgment and verification behavior of college students concerning Wikipedia Explanation This study examines credibility judgments in relation to peripheral cues and genre of Wikipedia articles, and attempts to understand user information verification behavior based on the theory of bounded rationality. Data were collected employing both an experiment and a survey at a large public university in the midwestern United States in Spring 2010. This study shows some interesting patterns. It appears that the effect of peripheral cues on credibility judgments differed according to genre. Those who did not verify information displayed a higher level of satisficing than those who did. Students used a variety of peripheral cues of Wikipedia. The exploratory data show that peer endorsement may be more important than formal authorities for user generated information sources, such as Wikipedia, which calls for further research.
Debating credibility: the shaping of information literacies in upper secondary school Debating credibility: the shaping of information literacies in upper secondary school Explanation Purpose - The article concerns information literacies in an environment characterised by the two partly competing and contradictory cultures of print and digital. The aim is to provide a better understanding of the ways in which students assess the credibility of sources they use in school, with a particular interest in how they treat participatory genres. Design/methodology/approach - An ethnographic study of a school class’s project work was conducted through observations, interviews, and log books in blog form. The analysis was influenced by a socio-cultural perspective. Findings - The study provides increased empirically based understanding of students’ information literacy practices. Four non-exclusive approaches to credibility stemming from control, balance, commitment, and multiplicity were identified. Originality/value - The study adds to the understanding of how credibility is assessed in school environments with a particular focus on how digital and participatory genres are treated.
Characterizing and modeling the dynamics of online popularity Characterizing and modeling the dynamics of online popularity Explanation Online popularity has an enormous impact on opinions, culture, policy, and profits. We provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the dynamics of online content popularity in two massive model systems: the Wikipedia and an entire country's Web space. We find that the dynamics of popularity are characterized by bursts, displaying characteristic features of critical systems such as fat-tailed distributions of magnitude and interevent time. We propose a minimal model combining the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism with the occurrence of random popularity shifts due to exogenous factors. The model recovers the critical features observed in the empirical analysis of the systems analyzed here, highlighting the key factors needed in the description of popularity dynamics.
An analysis of Wikipedia An analysis of Wikipedia Explanation Wikipedia is defined by its founders as the "free encyclopedia that anyone can edit." This property we argue makes Wikipedia a public good and hence subject to under-provision. A puzzling feature of Wikipedia however is its enormous size at roughly seven times that of its commercial counterparts. What is driving this growth? And how can we assess the reliability of this giant encyclopedia arising solely from free-editing? We model contribution to Wikipedia and its reliability. We demonstrate that Wikipedia is indeed subject to free-riding and offer a novel explanation for the mitigation of under-provision under such circumstances. We also find that the public-good feature of Wikipedia and free-riding introduce a lower-bound in the quality of Wikipedia. This finding is consistent with a previous empirical study that established Wikipedia's surprisingly high level of quality. We identify Wikipedia as part of a general Internet phenomenon that we call the Collaborative Net and that includes features such as citizen journalism and online reviews.
A multimethod study of information quality in wiki collaboration A multimethod study of information quality in wiki collaboration Explanation In this article, the author presents the results of a two-phase, multimethod study of wiki-based collaboration in an attempt to better understand how peer-produced collaboration is done well in wiki environments. Phase 1 involves an in-depth case study of the collaborative processes surrounding the development of the Wikipedia article on the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre. The rich data collected are used to develop an initial set of testable hypotheses of factors that enhance the quality of peer-produced information in wiki environments. Phase 2 tests these theories through a quantitative analysis of the collaborative features associated with 188 similar articles that Wikipedia considered for recognition as their best (i.e., the top 0.1%). Four collaborative features are examined for their effects on quality: volume of contributor activity, type of contributor activity, number of anonymous contributors, and top contributor experience. Volume of contributor activity is the only feature that is unsupported, a particularly interesting result because previous literature connects that factor most clearly to success in wiki-based collaboration. Implications are discussed.
Perceived credibility of Internet encyclopedias Perceived credibility of Internet encyclopedias Explanation A vast amount of information is now available online, produced by a variety of sources with a range of editorial oversight procedures. These range from very centralized information with multiple layers of review, to no oversight at all. Determining which information is credible can pose a real challenge. An experiment was designed to determine whether certain webpage characteristics affect academics' and students' perception of the credibility of information presented in an online article. The experiment looked at five peripheral cues: (1) presence or absence of an identifiable author, (2) presence or absence of references, (3) presence or absence of a biased sponsor, (4) presence or absence of an award, and (5) whether the article is designated as appearing in Encyclopedia Britannica, Wikipedia, or Encyclopedia of Earth. The results indicate that compared to Encyclopedia Britannica, article information appearing in both Encyclopedia of Earth and Wikipedia is perceived as significantly less credible. They also show that the presence of a biased sponsor has a significant negative effect on perceived credibility.
Open content and value creation Open content and value creation Explanation The borderline between production and consumption of media content is not so clear as it used to be. For example on the Internet, many people put a lot of effort into producing personal home pages in the absence of personal compensation. They publish everything from holiday pictures to complete Web directories. Illegal exchange of media material is another important trend that has a negative impact on the media industry.

In this paper, I consider open content as an important development track in the media landscape of tomorrow. I define open content as content possible for others to improve and redistribute and/or content that is produced without any consideration of immediate financial reward — often collectively within a virtual community. The open content phenomenon can to some extent be compared to the phenomenon of open source. Production within a virtual community is one possible source of open content. Another possible source is content in the public domain. This could be sound, pictures, movies or texts that have no copyright, in legal terms.

Which are the driving forces for the cooperation between players that work with open content? This knowledge could be essential in order to understand the dynamics of business development, technical design and legal aspects in this field. In this paper I focus on these driving forces and the relationships between these players.

I have studied three major open content projects. In my analysis, I have used Gordijn’s (2002) value modeling method “e3value”, modified for open content value creation and value chains. Open content value chains look much the same as commercial value chains, but there are also some major differences. In a commercial value chain, the consumers’ needs trigger the entire chain of value creation. My studies indicate that an open content value chain is often triggered by what the creators and producers wish to make available as open content.

Motivations in non–monetary forms play a crucial role in the creation of open content value chains and value. My study of these aspects is based on Feller and Fitzgerald’s (2002) three perspectives on motivations underlying participation in the creation of open source software.
Debating Information Control in Web 2.0. The Case of Wikipedia vs. Citizendium Debating Information Control in Web 2.0. The Case of Wikipedia vs. Citizendium N/A Wikipedia is continually being scrutinised for the quality of its content The question addressed in this paper concerns which notions of information, of collaborative knowledge creation, of authority and of the role of the expert are drawn on when information control in WP is discussed. This is done by focusing on the arguments made in the debates surrounding the launch of Citizendium, a proposed new collaborative online encyclopaedia. While Wikipedia claims not to attribute special status to any of its contributors, Citizendium intends to assign a decision-making role to subject experts. The empirical material for the present study consists of two online threads available from Slashdot. One, "A Look inside Citizendium", dates from September, the second one "Co-Founder Forks Wikipedia" from October 2006. The textual analysis of these documents was carried out through close interpretative reading. Five themes, related to different aspects of information control emerged: 1.information types, 2.information responsibility, 3. information perspectives, 4. information organisation, 5. information provenance & creation. Each theme contains a number of different positions. It was found that these positions not necessarily correspond with the different sides of the argument. Instead, at times the fault lines run through the two camps.
The Rolls Royce of the library reference collection The Rolls Royce of the library reference collection N/A This paper reviews the development of the subject encyclopedia as an information resource and evaluates its present role, with particular focus on the academic library. The paper looks especially at online subject encyclopedias and the extent to which academic libraries are facilitating and promoting access to these resources.
A request for help to improve the coverage of the NHS and UK healthcare issues on Wikipedia A request for help to improve the coverage of the NHS and UK healthcare issues on Wikipedia N/A Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/>

is an online encyclopaedia which anyone can edit. It has been suggested that its coverage of the NHS and UK healthcare issues is currently poor. Therefore, a group of users have got together to create an ‘NHS wikiproject’ <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia: WikiProject_National_Health_Service> to try to improve this. We are trying to use a range of media to reach out to others with a wide range of knowledge and skills to ask you to help. Examples of how you might do this include adding information or pictures of a hospital you know or describing (in an encyclopaedic way) an organisation you are familiar with. The idea is to improve the quality of information available to everyone and, as Google ranks Wikipedia pages very highly, get

that information to a wide audience.
Why you can't cite Wikipedia in my class Why you can't cite Wikipedia in my class N/A The case for an online open-source encyclopedia is enormously appealing. What's not to like? It gives the originators of entries a means to publish, albeit anonymously, in fields they care deeply about and provides editors the opportunity to improve, add to, and polish them, a capacity not afforded to in-print articles. Above all, open sourcing marshals legions of unpaid, eager, frequently knowledgeable volunteers, whose enormous aggregate labor and energy makes possible the creation of an entity—Wikipedia, which today boasts more than 1.6 million entries in its English edition alone—that would otherwise be far too costly and labor-intensive to see the light of day. In a sense it would have been technologically impossible just a few years ago; open sourcing is democracy in action, and Wikipedia is its most ubiquitous and accessible creation. Yet I am a historian, schooled in the concept that scholarship requires accountability and trained in a discipline in which collaborative research is rare. The idea that the vector-sum products of tens or hundreds of anonymous collaborators could have much value is, to say the least, counterintuitive for most of us in my profession. We don't allow our students to cite printed general encyclopedias, much less open-source ones. Further, while Wikipedia compares favorably with other tertiary sources for articles in the sciences, approximately half of all entries are in some sense historical. Here the qualitative record is much spottier, with reliability decreasing in approximate proportion to distance from "hot topics" in American history [1]. For a Japan historian like me to perceive the positive side of Wikipedia requires an effort of will.