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Open content and value creation
Abstract The borderline between production and consThe borderline between production and consumption of media content is not so clear as it used to be. For example on the Internet, many people put a lot of effort into producing personal home pages in the absence of personal compensation. They publish everything from holiday pictures to complete Web directories. Illegal exchange of media material is another important trend that has a negative impact on the media industry. In this paper, I consider open content as an important development track in the media landscape of tomorrow. I define open content as content possible for others to improve and redistribute and/or content that is produced without any consideration of immediate financial reward — often collectively within a virtual community. The open content phenomenon can to some extent be compared to the phenomenon of open source. Production within a virtual community is one possible source of open content. Another possible source is content in the public domain. This could be sound, pictures, movies or texts that have no copyright, in legal terms. Which are the driving forces for the cooperation between players that work with open content? This knowledge could be essential in order to understand the dynamics of business development, technical design and legal aspects in this field. In this paper I focus on these driving forces and the relationships between these players. I have studied three major open content projects. In my analysis, I have used Gordijn’s (2002) value modeling method “e3value”, modified for open content value creation and value chains. Open content value chains look much the same as commercial value chains, but there are also some major differences. In a commercial value chain, the consumers’ needs trigger the entire chain of value creation. My studies indicate that an open content value chain is often triggered by what the creators and producers wish to make available as open content. Motivations in non–monetary forms play a crucial role in the creation of open content value chains and value. My study of these aspects is based on Feller and Fitzgerald’s (2002) three perspectives on motivations underlying participation in the creation of open source software.n in the creation of open source software.
Added by wikilit team Added on initial load  +
Collected data time dimension Cross-sectional  +
Conclusion My results could be compared with Rehn (20My results could be compared with Rehn (2001) who has studied the so-called software development "gift " culture. Rehn examined a special sub-culture is called "Warez", comparing it to other ethnographical studies. Value creation in this sub-culture is done in several steps, just as in open content value chains. These value exchanges can be described simply as: Gift giving of software makes you the ruler in the Warez sub-culture. There is a similar description about open source value exchanges in Bergquist and Ljungberg (2001): Giving free software is rewarded with reputation in the programmer’s community. Perhaps the best explanation is that the value chain contains mixed triggers, that is a mix of end users and producers/creators. The driving forces are not only a part of the value chain, but also parts of personal motivations and benefits to the society. Could the term "value constellation" be useful for open content? For some producers and creators, it is more important than for others in the value chain. A new study could verify this complex issue. Additional studies could also explore e3value as a tool for a variety of content developers and creators. In addition, the hierarchic structure of some content developers could also be explored.content developers could also be explored.
Data source Interview responses  +
Google scholar url http://scholar.google.com/scholar?ie=UTF-8&q=%22Open%2Bcontent%2Band%2Bvalue%2Bcreation%22  +
Has author Magnus Cedergren +
Has domain Information systems +
Has topic Legal infrastructure + , Contributor motivation + , Culture and values of Wikipedia + , Commercial aspects +
Issue 8  +
Month August  +
Peer reviewed Yes  +
Publication type Journal article  +
Published in First Monday +
Research design Case study  +
Research questions In this paper, I consider open content as In this paper, I consider open content as an important development track in the media landscape of tomorrow. I define open content as content possible for others to improve and redistribute and/or content that is produced without any consideration of immediate financial reward — often collectively within a virtual community. The open content phenomenon can to some extent be compared to the phenomenon of open source. Production within a virtual community is one possible source of open content. Another possible source is content in the public domain. This could be sound, pictures, movies or texts that have no copyright, in legal terms. Which are the driving forces for the cooperation between players that work with open content? This knowledge could be essential in order to understand the dynamics of business development, technical design and legal aspects in this field. In this paper I focus on these driving forces and the relationships between these players. I have studied three major open content projects. In my analysis, I have used Gordijn’s (2002) value modeling method "e3value", modified for open content value creation and value chains. Open content value chains look much the same as commercial value chains, but there are also some major differences. In a commercial value chain, the consumers’ needs trigger the entire chain of value creation. My studies indicate that an open content value chain is often triggered by what the creators and producers wish to make available as open content. Issues of value creation are essential in considering open content. The general issue of this paper is •What value is exchanged between open content parties? What is the "payment" for using open content? What does a value model look like? This study leads to a more detailed issue, the focus of the second part of this paper: •What driving forces control the value exchange in an open content value model?e exchange in an open content value model?
Revid 11,533  +
Theories For this study, I was inspired by two exisFor this study, I was inspired by two existing theories: •The motivation behind open source software, according to Feller and Fitzgerald (2002); and, •The value of the content, based "the economy of ideas", according to Barlow (1994). Figure 6 is a sumary of my new model, where I describe the driving forces in a theoretical open content value chain. My model is therefore based on the value exchanges of e3value, and not primarily on Feller and Fitzgerald (2002) or Barlow (1994). Some of the driving forces are closely connected to the value exchanges between actors in the value chain. On the other hand, some have more in common with personal motivation or benefits to society as a whole. Of course, Figure 1 is a simplified version of Internet-based open content collaboration: In reality, these value chains are not so linear. For example, a producer has relationships with many creators and distributors and an Internet portal gains material from several sources. Also, Figure 1 is somewhat theoretical. In reality, many parties consist of combinations of these roles. For example, a producer may sometimes take on the role of an internet portal.es take on the role of an internet portal.
Theory type Explanation  +
Title Open content and value creation
Unit of analysis User  +
Url http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1071/991  +
Volume 8  +
Wikipedia coverage Case  +
Wikipedia data extraction N/A  +
Wikipedia language Not specified  +
Wikipedia page type N/A  +
Year 2003  +
Creation dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 15 March 2012 20:29:56  +
Categories Legal infrastructure  + , Contributor motivation  + , Culture and values of Wikipedia  + , Commercial aspects  + , Information systems  + , Publications with missing comments  + , Publications  +
Modification dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 5 June 2014 10:31:58  +
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