Last modified on March 15, 2012, at 15:28

Property:Theories

Various theoretical bases, frameworks and perspectives that the study draws upon or builds.



Pages using the property "Theories"

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'Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia' as a role model? Lessons for open innovation from an exploratory examination of the supposedly democratic-anarchic nature of Wikipedia +Undetermined

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A 'resource review' of Wikipedia +The theory behind all wikis and other open-source projects is that, through a process of watching and checking by 'many eyeballs', the over-all 'product' (for want of a better word) will tend to improve -- a counter to the cliché that 'too many cooks spoil the broth' (Brandle, 2005). This melting pot of users is surely the most startling feature of Wikipedia.
A Persian web page classifier applying a combination of content-based and context-based features +Undetermined
A Wikipedia literature review +Statistical analyses
A Wikipedia matching approach to contextual advertising +Undetermined
A comparison of World Wide Web resources for identifying medical information +Undetermined
A comparison of privacy issues in collaborative workspaces and social networks +This description of general features is supplemented with a suitable definition of privacy, a sociological perspective and an applicable adversary model in order to have a theoretical basis for the comparison of both types of social software. When interacting with other people or organisations, every individual plays a role that is appropriate in a particular situation. The behaviour of someone who is surrounded by close family members may differ substantially from the one displayed at work when interacting with colleagues or management. According to Goffman it depends on the context what part of one’s identity someone is prepared to show to the environment, where it is essential to keep these contexts separate: the term ‘audience segregation’ is coined for this phenomenon. Audience segregation can be defined as the ability of the user to have different partial identities to play different roles and portray the self to others in a way he chooses (Goffman 1959). Thanks to the careful segregation of the different audiences, the partial identities can be allowed to co-exist. Rachels states that this audience segregation “is an essential characteristic of modern (western) societies and allows for different kinds of social relationships to be established and maintained” (Rachels 1975). The sociological theory concisely introduced above was drafted long before the advent of social network sites or collaborative workspaces, but the concepts hold up well online. On social network sites, the user profile is the image someone presents to his environment, and it forms the basis for his interactions with the other members of the social network site. However, the image someone presents is often only directed at a certain audience (e.g. someone’s closest friends), and may cause embarrassment when accessed by others. The theory behind context segregation and the risk of collapsing contexts form a powerful means to analyse the privacy issues in both social network sites and collaborative workspaces. Another sociological perspective deals with the specific norms users of social software bring to the table. It was theorised that every social network comes with its own set of social norms (Tönnies 1965). Actions of members of these networks are based on assumptions about the norms that regulate the interactions. The mismatch between the user’s expectation of social norms and the existing practices in a particular network or workspace could be another source of arising privacy issues. The extent to which stakeholders in a network or workspace act in accordance with the normative expectations of other stakeholders forms a useful basis for analysis.
A content-driven reputation system for the Wikipedia +Information theory
A cultural and political economy of Web 2.0 +Social construction of technology; Marxian political economy
A data-driven sketch of Wikipedia editors +Undetermined
A five-year study of on-campus Internet use by undergraduate biomedical students +Undetermined
A framework for information quality assessment +information theory, theory of Information Use Environments
A knowledge-based search engine powered by Wikipedia +Undetermined
A negative category based approach for Wikipedia document classification +Undetermined
A new year, a new Internet +Undetermined
A request for help to improve the coverage of the NHS and UK healthcare issues on Wikipedia +Undetermined
A semantic approach for question classification using WordNet and Wikipedia +Automatic validation of the answer is a relatively new concept. Introduction of AVE (Automatic Validation Exercise) at QA@CLEF in 2006 (Cross Language Evaluation Forum, 2006) gave a major boost to research in this direction.
A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis +For this purpose, the model presented in this article borrows from the systemic approach of Luhmann as well as from Piaget’s theory of equilibration and combines these approaches. In the remainder of this article we will present a theoretical model of collaborative knowledge building with wikis by assuming a systemic perspective. In this context we will discuss the differential modes of operation in social and cognitive systems. For this purpose we borrow perspectives from systems theoretical approaches (cf. Luhmann 1984, 1995, 1997; von Bertalanffy 1950, 1968). According to Luhmann’s sociological systems theory social systems can be distinguished from cognitive systems. In this section we will first of all outline the functionality of a social system, and then we will address the functionality of cognitive systems. After that, we will describe the processes responsible for transitions between the social system and people’s cognitive systems. In this context, we distinguish the process of externalization from the process of internalization, and we describe both processes in detail. In order to present our ideas as comprehensibly as possible, we will first introduce the major concepts on a general level, and then we will explain them in more detail, applying real-life examples from Wikipedia. The equilibrium theory describes the way people try to maintain a balance between the environmental information on the one hand and their prior knowledge on the other hand. If information is new and not in line with existing knowledge this incongruity causes a cognitive conflict. When information cannot be promptly decoded and integrated into existing knowledge, people have to adapt to this new environment (cf. also the taxonomy of responses in anomalous data provided by Chinn and Brewer 1993, 1998). Piaget points out that such cognitive conflicts can lead to new knowledge.
A tale of two tasks: editing in the era of digital literacies +Undetermined
Academics and Wikipedia: reframing Web 2.0 as a disruptor of traditional academic power-knowledge arrangements +Given the exploratory nature of this project, data collection consisted of a convenience sample of academic staff from seven invited universities: four in Australia, and one each in Canada, the UK and South Africa. An online survey instrument using “SurveyMonkey’ featured a predominantly quantitative question bank with qualitative questions in line with a grounded theory framework (Strauss, 1990). Regarding the reliability of internet data collection methods, research by Gosling et al. found that: … the data provided by Internet methods are of at least as good quality as those provided by traditional paper-and-pencil methods. […] Web-questionnaire results […] are, so far, consistent with results from traditional methods [and] are not as flawed as is commonly believed (Gosling et al., 2004, p. 102).
Accelerating networks +Although interesting, the definitions in [3] seem constrictive in that they are applicable only to a specific algorithm, and the concept of acceleration is static in nature, i.e., a given network is considered to be either accelerating, non-accelerating, or decelerating throughout its evolution. In the model of Gagen and Mattick (GM-model), as in many other conventional outof- equilibrium evolving network models, the system evolves by introducing exactly one new node at each time step.
Access, claims and quality on the Internet - future challenges +Undetermined
Accuracy estimate and optimization techniques for SimRank computation +Undetermined
Action research as a congruent methodology for understanding wikis: the case of Wikiversity +Applied to an educational context, McPherson and Nunes have developed a useful action research model, encompassing the organisational context, pedagogic model, educational setting, and evaluation process (McPherson, Nunes, 2004: 27-29). It is also worthwhile to reflect on the fact that the research I am describing takes place within an online context – which are often quite amorphous and flexible in their boundaries (Foth, 2006; Barab et al., 2004). Given the previously discussed range of involvement around this research context, action research can serve to incorporate this diversity within each component of the framework proposed by McPherson and Nunes, and to use the framework to shed light on different aspects and modes of participation.
Adaptive indexing for content-based search in P2P systems +Undetermined
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