Last modified on March 15, 2012, at 03:10

Property:Conclusion

Conclusions that the authors of the article have drawn from their study. Very often, this field consists of direct quotations from the article.



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'Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia' as a role model? Lessons for open innovation from an exploratory examination of the supposedly democratic-anarchic nature of Wikipedia +We report that various insights from the field of OSS can be equally well applied to the realm of Wikipedia. Our best evidence for this is the fact that contributors are generally not reimbursed for their efforts. Consistent with our observations and in line with Deci (1975), this can ascribed to both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational stimuli as defined in earlier sections. In several cases, Wikipedia seems to follow conventional organizational patterns, particularly in respect of the unexpected bureaucratization. Our findings reflect this in terms of the establishment of different types of permissions, policies, and guidelines, as well as the creation of central institutions.

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A 'resource review' of Wikipedia +This, I think, just underlines Reagle's (2006) point that, despite the technological background to its development, Wikipedia is still basically concerned with 'the same old problems of humans engaged in the drama of social life'. The story continues…
A Persian web page classifier applying a combination of content-based and context-based features +We have proposed a method of classifying the Persian web page documents by linear combination of different features and adjusting the optimum weighting during classifi cation. . The results achieved with the current approach are quite encouraging. In most cases, the algorithm was able to categorize each page in the most appropriate category. The few exceptions appeared due to limitations of the linguistic tools we used for extracting the words.
A Wikipedia literature review +There was literally no conclusion given in this working paper.
A Wikipedia matching approach to contextual advertising +Experimental evaluations show that our proposed Wikipedia matching improves the precision of selected ads by traditional keyword matching and semantic-syntactic matching strategies. A statistical t-test was used to confirm that our proposed method performs better than previous solutions.We have also confirmed the positive effect of using Wikipedia matching by applying TREC standard measure bpref-10.
A comparison of World Wide Web resources for identifying medical information +Results The most frequently selected non-Google resources were Yahoo (n = 531), Ask.com (n = 110), and the interactive encyclopedia Wikipedia.com (n = 74). Google was more efficient than all other resources (1.50 vs. 1.94 mean links, P < .0001), with no significant difference in correctness (97% [756/780] vs. 96% [747/780], P = .16). After a Google search, the four most common categories of sites that provided the correct answer were dictionary/encyclopedia sites, medical websites, National Library of Medicine resources, or journal websites. Yahoo was less efficient than Google (1.90 vs. 1.54 mean links, P < .0001). However, non-Google search engines were more efficient than web sites (eg, Wikipedia, medical websites) and PubMed (1.87 vs. 2.54 mean links, P = .0004). Conclusion Google is an efficient web resource for identifying specific medical information, by guiding users to an array of medical resources.
A comparison of privacy issues in collaborative workspaces and social networks +In general, the issues we have found arise mainly due to collapsing contexts, i.e. users’ personal data used in contexts other than the original and intended one. The finding that social software lacks fine-grained and user-determined access control options aggravates this source of privacy issues. Serious privacy issues are not only the result of the breach of technical implementations, but may also be brought about through the disregard of social norms and legal provisions. Therefore we conclude that solutions to address privacy issues in social software can neither be only technical, nor only legal, nor only based on upholding certain social norms: it is necessary to find a comprehensive approach. A combination of all three areas is needed in order to improve privacy protection on the one hand without losing important functionalities on the other hand, whilst safeguarding the social usability of the application for the average user.
A content-driven reputation system for the Wikipedia +Our results show that our notion of reputation has good predictive value: changes performed by low-reputation authors have a significantly larger than average probability of having poor quality, as judged by human observers, and of being later undone, as measured by our algorithms.
A cultural and political economy of Web 2.0 +"However, Wikipedia's model is in the process of being reformulated in the Web 2.0 forprofit mode. In fact, one of the leaders in this area is Jimmy Wales himself. In 2004, he and Angela Beesley founded Wikicities (now Wikia), a for-profit wiki service which, like most other Web 2.0 sites, provides the ""platform"" for users to create content. It uses Creative Commons licensing and has all the same features as Wikipedia. However, it sells advertising space. Wikia tends to focus on niches; its popular wikis include the Lostpedia (for fans of the show Lost), WoWWiki (for World of Warcraft gamers), the Academic Jobs Wiki (for beleaguered PhD students and postdocs engaged in academic job searches), and the Wookipedia (for Star Wars fans). Thus it is largely predicated on leveraging fan culture, contrasting with Wikipedia's universalist ideals of a compendium of all human knowledge. The profits of advertising go to Wikia. Jimmy Wales may have been thwarted in his attempt to build a for-profit company out of Wikipedia, but Wikia is achieving that goal. Despite this, Wikipedia still offers a model to all of us who are interested in the pleasures, joys, and value of contributing our ideas to collective projects without having those efforts be captured by capital. Because of the Spanish Fork labor strike, we have a nonprofit encyclopedia which to this day does not sell our ideas and pleasures to advertisers. Its users freely contribute without worrying about the exploitation of their labor. What if something similar happened in 2006 to Facebook? What if users revolted against Facebook by withdrawing and demanding that it become a nonprofit? What if today we logged onto Facebook.org and donated money to the nonprofit to keep its servers running? What if instead of central servers, Blogger and YouTube ran on a peerto- peer network architecture? What if all of these sites engaged in transparent decision making? The existence of Wikipedia makes possible these questions, because users of the site engaged in two key actions: gravitating towards the wiki structure and protesting against the commercialization of their voluntary labor."
A five-year study of on-campus Internet use by undergraduate biomedical students +Students are increasingly reliant on generalist information retrieval tools, particularly Google and Wikipedia, to support their learning activities. There is a movement away from email, especially institutional email accounts, and towards social networking tools. The use of core institutional systems and services, particularly learning management systems is high and continues to increase. Students are avid users of social networking tools (for personal, social or recreational use) but infrequent users of other so-called ‘Web 2.0’ technologies. The most frequented sites and technologies included the university’s learning management system, Google, email and Facebook. Email was the primary method of electronic communication. However, its use declined over time, with a steep drop in use during 2006 and 2007 appearing to correspond with the rapid uptake of the social networking site Facebook. Both Google and Wikipedia gained in popularity over time while the use of other key information sources, including the library and biomedical portals, remained low throughout the study. With the notable exception of Facebook, most ‘Web 2.0’ technologies attracted little use. The ‘Net Generation’ students involved in this study were heavy users of generalist information retrieval tools and key online university services, and prefered to use externally hosted tools for online communication.
A framework for information quality assessment +"In this article, we introduced a general framework for IQ assessment. The framework consists of the typologies of IQ variance, the activities affected, a comprehensive taxonomy of IQ dimensions along with general metric functions, and methods of framework operationalization. The framework establishes causal connections among the sources of IQ variance attributable to potential IQ problem structures and types of activities, and it provides a simple and powerful predictive mechanism to study IQ problems and reason through them in a systematic and meaningful way. The framework can serve as a valuable knowledge resource and guide for the rapid and inexpensive development of specific IQ measurement models in many different settings by suggesting relevant IQ dimensions, trade-off relations, relevant general metric functions, and methods of operationalization. The framework has been successfully applied to develop IQ measurement models for two large-scale collections of two large classes of information objects, DC records, and encyclopedia articles." (p. 1732)
A knowledge-based search engine powered by Wikipedia +This paper has introduced Koru, a new search engine that harnesses Wikipedia to provide domain-independent knowledgebased retrieval. Our intuition that Wikipedia could provide a knowledge base that matched both documents and queries has so far been borne out. We have tested it with a varied domainindependent collection of documents and retrieval tasks, and it was able to recognize and lend assistance to almost all queries issued to it, and significantly improve retrieval performance. Koru’s design was also validated, in that it allowed users to apply the knowledge found in Wikipedia to their retrieval process easily, effectively and efficiently. The following quote, given by one participant at the conclusion of their session, summarizes Koru’s performance best: It feels like a more powerful searching method, and allows you to search for topics that you may not have thought of… …it could use some improvements but the ability to graphically turn topics on/off is useful, and the way the system compresses synonymous terms together saves the user from having to search for the variations themselves. The ability to see a list of related terms also makes it easier to refine a search, where as with keyword searching you have to think up related terms yourself.
A negative category based approach for Wikipedia document classification +This paper presents a method of Wikipedia classification. Since NCD based profile creation proved to perform well for non-overlapping categories, we have experimented with this method, coupled with the method that exploits IDES and title terms for profile creation. The IDES of the Wikipedia documents which contain domain specific terms helped to improve the performance of overall classification. Combination of two classifiers has shown better results than any of the classifiers taken individually. We also plan to extend this method, by exploring more Wikipedia specific structures such as links in a document.
A new year, a new Internet +No main conclusions. the whole article is an extended answer of the question from RQ2.
A request for help to improve the coverage of the NHS and UK healthcare issues on Wikipedia +No conclusions were drawn
A semantic approach for question classification using WordNet and Wikipedia +We have tested our approach on TREC datasets and achieved 89.55% classification accuracy which is comparable to earlier reported research works. Based on the results, we can say that proposed method seems to be promising for question classification in the field of open-domain question answering. The distinctive points of the algorithm are lying in its dynamic and extendible properties which are needed for constantly changing open-domain Question Answering Systems. Thus, it seems to be logical assumption that in such scenario question classification with fixed set of classes will not be enough and we need methods which could introduce new set of classes as and when needed.
A systemic and cognitive view on collaborative knowledge building with wikis +In this article we developed a model which helps us to better understand collaborative knowledge building with wikis. For this purpose we combined Luhmann’s systems theory with Piaget’s cognitive theory. Luhmann’s approach is very thorough with respect to social systems, whereas Piaget’s theory primarily focuses on cognitive development. Consequently, it was clearly necessary to examine whether the processes described by Piaget could be translated into social systems in order to better understand collaborative knowledge building. The model attempts to demonstrate the interplay of the social system wiki and individuals’ cognitive systems. This consideration of the structural coupling of social and cognitive systems illustrates collaborative knowledge building with artifacts and might be a fertile approach for CSCL research
A tale of two tasks: editing in the era of digital literacies +If, as teachers, we dismiss examples of collaborative writing in digital environments such as Wikipedia because they do not fit traditional (and often hierarchical) conceptions of authorship and authority, we miss rich opportunities to consider new roles and relationships for writers. Worse, our students miss them, too.
A utility for estimating the relative contributions of wiki authors +"While non-attribution is useful in promoting democratic deliberation on the internet, it prevents corporate users from gaining recognition for their wiki work. Recent studies have proposed software utilities that would automatically attribute a wiki user with a score representing his contribution. However, these proposed algorithms suffer from several drawbacks, as they often use course measures, they are easy to manipulate, and they often capture just a sub-set of the classes of contributions. In this paper we’ve tried to address these gaps by proposing a novel wiki attribution algorithm and comparing it against human perceptions. The innovation of our algorithm lies in (a) the sentence-ownership algorithm, and (b) in calculating contributions that persist in the current version of the wiki page (in addition to metrics calculating the overall contribution). We argued that the count of sentences that survived the wiki process of continuous refinements implicitly captures the quality of a user’s contributions. One of the most surprising result of our study is that the metric that is most correlated with assessors’ perceptions of top contributors is the internal link count. We do not believe that assessors’ perceptions were strongly affected by the number of internal links an author makes. Rather, we explain this result by the fact that the ones adding links are active across a variety of categories, and this is why they are perceived as top contributors. We were also surprised to find that the simple edit count – used as a baseline – performed very well, yielding higher correlation with top contributor perceptions that other metrics such as sentence ownership. We believe that this is due to the fact that the edit count captures range of contributions across all categories, while the other metrics are associated with only a sub-set of the authoring categories. The sentence ownership metric performed fairly well, and has the advantage that it is less vulnerable to manipulations. Additional research is warranted in order to explore the design of more advanced wiki attribution algorithms, so that we can gain a better understanding of the authoring categories captured by various algorithms, and assess whether the presentation of user attribution indeed motivates wiki users to enhance their participation." (p. 174)
Academics and Wikipedia: reframing Web 2.0 as a disruptor of traditional academic power-knowledge arrangements +The data by and large demonstrate that Wikipedia continues to be a divisive issue among academics, particularly within the “soft sciences”. However, Wikipedia is not as controversial as popular publicity would lead one to believe. Many academics use it extensively though cautiously themselves, and therefore tend to support a cautious approach to its use by students. However, evidence supports the assertion that there is an implicit if not explicit awareness among academics that Wikipedia, and possibly by extension Web 2.0+, are disruptors of conventional academic power-knowledge arrangements.
Accelerating networks +We have explored the limits of the proposed definition of network acceleration and, based on our findings, have provided an alternative definition for accelerating networks. Perhaps most important is the conceptual difference between the two definitions: the concept of network acceleration as introduced in this paper refers to the properties of the network at a particular moment in time as opposed to an algorithm governing the evolution of the network as suggested in [3]. In addition to introducing the related concept of network velocity, we have augmented the definition of network acceleration to cover weighted networks as well. We have demonstrated the utility of these concepts by their simple application to study the evolution of Wikipedia in three different languages. While the data obtained from public domain is not very accurate, the obtained results clearly support the conclusion that networks undergo different regimes of acceleration throughout their evolution.
Access, claims and quality on the Internet - future challenges +To this end, we have suggested that five new features that need to be added to such systems; 1) variants and multiple claims; 2) levels of certainty in making a claim; levels of authority in defending a claim; 4) levels of significance in assessing a claim; 5) levels of thouroughness in assessing a claim. If these dimensions are integrated into an open source model there is reason for optimism about the potentials of the emerging technologies. The vision of source knowledge on a fully semantic web may well take at least another century to achieve, but this only confirms that the goal is a noble one.
Accuracy estimate and optimization techniques for SimRank computation +A precise accuracy estimate for SimRank iterative com- putation is established. The estimate reveals that SimRank computation parameters suggested in the original SimRank proposal implied a relatively low accuracy, and the choice for different parameter values is suggested. The accuracy estimate allows a-priori finding out the correct number of iterations required for achieving a desired accuracy. The number of iterations turns out to be independent of input graph characteristics, the fact to benefit scalability. Experimental results show a 50 times speedup achieved by the optimization techniques for a graph with 10K nodes, and relative improvement in computation time further increases for larger graphs. The experience in computing SimRank scores over the English Wikipedia corpus exhibits practical viability of the approach for relatively large data corpora. We believe that the results presented in the paper would facilitate a wider application of SimRank to computer science techniques, as this similarity measure definitely deserves.
Action research as a congruent methodology for understanding wikis: the case of Wikiversity +Wikis and action research are congruent, both epistemologically and methodologically, to the extent that action research is akin to ‘research, the wiki way’. Wikis fit perfectly into the ‘participatory paradigm’ called for by Reason and Bradbury (2006), and build and expand on the significant, perhaps paradigmatic, changes that ICTs have brought to education (Harasim, 2000). I see the transparency of wikis as offering a significant educational potential – in affording a detailed view of how a page has developed through time, who has contributed to it, and what this can tell us about the construction of knowledge and, indeed, how this can be used to show how knowledge is constructed.
Adaptive indexing for content-based search in P2P systems +As a result, our system avoids several severe problems caused by maintaining such global knowledge. Nevertheless, it still achieves comparable retrieval efficiency as those systems keeping global knowledge. Although the structure of our system is partially based on a tree structure, our search algorithm guarantees no bottleneck at the root or nodes near the root. In addition, we also introduced several techniques to further improve the system performance. Finally, our extensive experiments demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.
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