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Conclusions that the authors of the article have drawn from their study. Very often, this field consists of direct quotations from the article.



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Community building around encyclopaedic knowledge +This paper introduced several demands that future systems dealing with encyclopaedias knowledge should meet. Annotations should be omnipresent, and documents should be really active documents. Furthermore, users must have the opportunity to store the information encountered and their comments in a private workspace—and they have to be able to share it with other users in the system. User profiles with the aim of adaptation individual users, statistical analysis and navigation and tracking technologies based on trails will provide more accurate and more detailed search results.
Community, consensus, coercion, control: cs*w or how policy mediates mass participation +Though our grounded approach has focused on how the policy environment enables the consensus process, it can also be read in terms of the broader theme of articulation work [15, 16]. Specifically, our analysis begins to unpack three aspects of articulation work: process, content and mutual support. Power plays that relate to prior consensus (e.g. 7.2) and how that consensus developed illustrate the work necessary to agree on a specific process or system of production. Power plays dealing with the article and the validity of specific sources of information (e.g. 7.1) illustrate the work to decide what it is that the group is to create. Lastly, power plays about individual ownership (e.g. 7.5) and legitimacy of individuals’ contributions (e.g. 7.4) begin to illustrate the articulation work necessary to support individuals within the group. Linking the rich theory of articulation work to our grounded analysis is future work. As we move from collaborative systems that support relatively small groups to systems that support mass participation, we see a need to support the multivalent relationships present in our everyday interactions. In our study of Wikipedia we have found policy to be an important focal point for facilitating collaboration. It provides a lens into the community that is particularly well suited for examining consensus, coercion, conflict and control. With our results we help frame the range of necessary considerations for designing more effective CS*W systems.
Comparing featured article groups and revision patterns correlations in Wikipedia +At first glance, the Featured Articles are relatively long, make consistent use of references, take advantage of hundreds of editors’ contributions, and are built on thousands of revisions. However, a closer look reveals that not every contribution has the same weight and major edits do not necessarily equate to ‘better edit’ for the article quality. Indeed, the minor edits play an important role in the revision pattern of FA: they consitute 30 percent of the whole editing work either in the HD group and in the LD one. This is consistent with previous finding (Jones, 2008) holding that polishing the article and focusing on small improvements is not a prerogative of low–quality articles. This article also analysed the role of the main editors (per number of edits) in relation to the article quality. In this regard, the two groups showed interesting differences. Articles where the presence of the main editors is higher tend to become featured more easily. This suggests the importance of a consistent style or a clear imprint during the evolution of the article. To conclude, this article suggests that future research on revision patterns and quality correlations should not neglect the heterogeneous aspects that exist within the class of objects under investigation.
Comparing methods for single paragraph similarity analysis +The findings presented in this paper indicate that corpus preprocessing, document length, and content are all important factors that determine a semantic model's ability to estimate human similarity judgments on paragraphs. The online, community-driven Wikipedia encyclopedia also proved to be a valuable resource from which corpora could be derived when a more suitable domain-chosen corpus is not available. In many applications the hand construction of corpora for a particular domain is not feasible, and so the ability to show a good match between human similarity judgments and machine evaluations is a result of applied significance.
Comparison of Wikipedia and other encyclopedias for accuracy, breadth, and depth in historical articles +The study did reveal inaccuracies in eight of the nine entries and exposed major flaws in at least two of the nine Wikipedia articles. Overall, Wikipedia's accuracy rate was 80 percent compared with 95-96 percent accuracy within the other sources. This study does support the claim that Wikipedia is less reliable than other reference resources. Furthermore, the research found at least five unattributed direct quotations and verbatim text from other sources with no citations.
Computational trust in web content quality: a comparative evaluation on the Wikipedia project +In this paper we have proposed a transparent, noninvasive and automatic method to evaluate the trustworthiness of Wikipedia articles. The method was able to estimate the trustworthiness of articles relying only on their present state, a characteristic needed in order to cope with the changing nature of Wikipedia. After having analyzed what brings credibility and expertise in the domains composing Wikipedia, i.e. content quality and collaborative working, we identified a set of new trust sources, trust evidence, to support our trust computation. The experimental evidence that we collected from almost 8 000 pages covering the majority of the encyclopaedia activity leads to promising results. This suggests a role for such a method in the identification of trustworthy material on the Web. The detailed study case, conducted by comparing a set of articles belonging to the category of “national country” shows how the accuracy of the computation can benefit from a deeper analysis of the article content. In our final experiment we compared our results with the results obtained using a pre-processed cluster analysis to isolate featured and standard articles. The comparison has shown the value added by explicitly using domainspecific expertise in a trust computation: a better isolation of articles of great or low quality and the possibility to offer understandable justifications for the outcomes obtained.
Computing semantic relatedness using Wikipedia-based explicit semantic analysis +Compared to LSA, which only uses statistical cooccurrence information, our methodology explicitly uses the knowledge collected and organized by humans. Compared to lexical resources such as WordNet, our methodology leverages knowledge bases that are orders of magnitude larger and more comprehensive. Empirical evaluation confirms that using ESA leads to substantial improvements in computing word and text relatedness. Compared with the previous state of the art, using ESA results in notable improvements in correlation of computed relatedness scores with human judgements: from r = 0.56 to 0.75 for individual words and from r = 0.60 to 0.72 for texts. Furthermore, due to the use of natural concepts, the ESA model is easy to explain to human users.
Computing trust from revision history +We introduced the concept of revision historybased trust and developed a dynamic Bayesian network trust model that utilized rich revision information in Wikipedia. Our experiments showed promising results, even though we made several simplifying assumptions in this work. We showed an evaluation method inWikipedia based on its feature articles, clean-up articles and the levels of author editing privileges. Our work provided a methodology for comparing and evaluating future computational trust algorithms. Based on our DBN model, we believe the reasons for Wikipedia being generally trustworthy are: (1) most Wikipedia authors seem to have good intentions (there are only 1:3% blocked authors); (2) Wikipedia administrators have the responsibility and authority to settle disputes, prevent vandalism, and block inappropriate authors. While there are a small number of administrators (0:09%), they have made much larger contributions to Wikipedia, for example, 29:4% revisions of featured articles were made by administrators in our experiments, according to Table 1; (3) Wikipedia maintains a complete revision history of articles from which a previous content modification can be easily reverted. The benefits of revision trust to Wikipedia users are significant. Visualization of the computed trust values may help users to decide what information they should trust. Users may also have the option to view the most trustworthy version of an article, in addition to the most recent one. Furthermore, revision trust can improve Wikipedia’s quality control process; for example, our model provides an appealing approach to monitoring changes in trustworthiness and thereby providing timely notifications of vandalism and other forms of malicious content modifications.
Conflict and consensus in the Chinese version of Wikipedia +The case of CW thus raises several issues of “media citizenship” and “technological citizenship” of the emergent cross-regional usergenerated content. From the case of CW, this article agrees with [4]: voice and participation is suitable for understanding the basis of user-generated content. But the complicated state-media-citizen relationships in and between China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan still haunt the polity of CW. Still, CW’s resilience in maintaining a shared public space between otherwise balkanized regions of Chinese speakers cannot be overlooked. It has laid some foundations in areas such as orthographic co-existence, automatic conversion, pro-diversity policies, and communicative rationality— qualities that arguably have Table II Some Indexes for the Offline Political Environment of the Four Regions. Regions Networked Readiness Index1 Democracy World Ranking2 Free Speech World Ranking3 Major Human Rights Violation4 Internet Filtered by Beijing (or so-called Great Firewall) Political Internet Filtering5 Mainland 59 138 163 Yes YES Pervasive Singapore 5 84 141 No No No evidence of filtering Hong Kong 22 78 61 No No Included in Mainland Taiwan 13 32 32 No No N.A. 1 Data from the Networked Readiness Index 2006–2007 Ranking, by World Economic Forum, among 122 countries surveyed [32]. 2 Data from the Economist Intelligence Unit’s index of democracy 2006, with 167 countries are ranked from the top democracies to authoritarian regimes [10]. 3 Data from the Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2007 made by the Reporters without Borders, with 169 countries are ranked [8]. 4 It is nominally determined whether the state in question is mentioned in the Human Rights Watch World Report 2007 [6]. 5 Data from the OpenNet Initiative about Internet filtering of political contents [7]. 56
Consistency without concurrency control in large, dynamic systems +It is well known that commutativity simplifies consistency maintenance, as it removes the need for complex concurrency control, allowing updates to execute in arbitrary orders while guaranteeing that replicas converge to the same result. However, the issue of designing shared data types for commutativity was neglected. We presented the Commutative Replicated Data Type or CRDT, designed to make concurrent updates commute. CRDTs enable increased performance and scalability compared to classical approaches. We proposed a CRDT called Treedoc that maintains an ordered set of atoms while providing insert and delete operations. To overcome the challenges of practicality and scalability, we explored some innovative solutions. Each atom has a unique, system-wide, compact identification that does not change between rebalances. Garbage collection is a requirement in practice; it is disruptive and requires consensus, but it has lower precedence that updates, and it is not in the critical path of applications. We side-step the nonscalability of consensus by dividing sites into two tiers with different roles.
Constructing commons in the cultural environment +This Article offers precisely such a framework. Applying the environmental metaphor that is increasingly common in studies of information and intellectual property policy, we analogize information and knowledge resources in the cultural environment to physical resources in the natural environment. We identify a set of constructed cultural commons, or pools of information resources, that serve functions in the cultural environment similar to the functions provided by common-pool resources in the natural environment. Those functions consist largely of serving as alternatives to purely private rights of exclusion and to government intervention in solving underproduction and overconsumption problems associated with an unmanaged or “natural” resource. Although constructed commons in the cultural environment exist for a variety of purposes, in general we hypothesize that they are often welfare-enhancing in regard to promoting valuable spillovers of information and knowledge distribution. Borrowing from Ostrom, we argue that understanding the origins and operation of beneficial cultural commons requires detailed assessments that recognize that they operate simultaneously at several levels, each nested in a level above, and that each level entails a variety of possible attributes that cannot, at this stage of the inquiry, be specified in detail in advance. We suggest a set of buckets or clusters of issues that should guide further inquiry, including the ways in which information resources and resource commons are structured by default rules of exclusion, and the ways in which members of these pools manage participation in the collection, production, preservation, and extraction of information resources. Case studies across disciplines and reviews of existing literature that addresses cultural commons will help specify relevant attributes within each cluster. These variables will help scholars and eventually policymakers assess the level of openness associated with a given commons and determine the extent to which “openness” is, as we hypothesize, associated with pools that are welfare-enhancing.
Contextual retrieval of single Wikipedia articles to support the reading of academic abstracts +A-Ql: Does using the terms from the abstract being read to form a context provide high precision retrieval of Wikipedia articles relevant to the text the user highlights? There arc two term frequency based algorithms developed in this thesis: • Paragraph Search and Rerank (Para/Rerank) • Phrase Paragraph Augmented Query (Phrase/Para) Both of these algorithms use the terms from the abstract to find similar Wikipedia articles. The terms from the user highlighted text are used to find a relevant article from that set. The top performing algorithm, Phrase/Para, has a precision at rank 1 of .77 over the test set used in this thesis. It significantly outperformed the baseline vector space model retrieval algorithm thus showing that terms from the abstract can be used to form a context providing high precision retrieval of Wikipedia articles. A-Q2: Does using the categories in Wikipedia to form a context provide high precision retrieval of Wikipedia articles relevant to the text the user highlights? There are five category based algorithms developed in this thesis: • Absolute Membership, Phrase Query, Top Ranked (AbsPhrRnk) • Encouraged Membership, Phrase Query, Top Ranked (EncPhrRnk) t Encouraged Membership, Phrase/Para Query, Top Ranked (EncPhrParRnk) • Encouraged Membership, Phrase Query, Category Popularity Threshold (EncPhrThrcs) • Encouraged Membership, Phrase/Para Query, Category Popularity Threshold (EncPhrParThres) These algorithms conduct context searches to find Wikipedia articles similar to the abstract. These similar articles have their categories extracted and the ones that are most frequent among them arc used to form a context. The highlighted text is then used to search for Wikipedia articles and those that belong to the a context category arc re-ranked to the top. The top performing algorithm, EncPhrParThres, uses encouraged membership and a threshold to select context categories for re-ranking the results from the phrase paragraph augment query, the highlighted text search. This algorithm significantly outperforms the baseline vector space model though its parameter settings reduced the impact the context has on the search process. These results provide only weak evidence that Wikipedia categories can be used to create a context for retrieving relevant Wikipedia articles. A-Q3: Does using the links between Wikipedia articles to form a context provide high precision retrieval of Wikipedia articles relevant to the text the user highlights? There are four link based algorithms developed in this thesis: • Authority, Phrase Query (AuthorPhr) • Authority, Phrase/Para Query (AuthorPhrPar) • Hub, Phrase Query (HubPhr) • Hub, Phrase/Para Query (HubPhrPar) Similar to the category based ones, these algorithms perform a context search. The results from this search arc mined for links to in order to identify authority and hub Wikipcdia articles. The top performing algorithm, HubPhrPar, mines the results from phrase paragraph augment query search for hub articles that arc then rc-ranked to the top. It significantly outperforms the baseline vector space model though its parameter settings reduced the impact the context has on the search process. These results provide only weak evidence that the Wikipcdia link structure can be used to create1 a context for retrieving relevant Wikipcdia articles. A-Q4: Between the terms in the abstract, the categories in Wikipedia, and the links between Wikipedia articles, which is the most effective for building a context providing high precision retrieval of Wikipedia articles relevant to the text the user highlights? The top performing contextual retrieval algorithm developed in this thesis, Phrase/Para, uses neither categories or links to form a context. Instead, terms from the abstract arc combined with terms from the user highlighted text in a search query. Abstract terms are used to search the contents of Wikipedia articles and highlighted terms are used to search the titles and the beginnings of articles. While the top performing category and link based algorithms have similar performances, it is due to Phrase/Para being incorporated into them and parameter settings that minimized the influence of the category and link based contexts. 5.1.2 User Experiment The second area of contribution is in the understanding of how users performed when using the reading support tool, LitcraryMark, to retrieve explanatory information related to the academic abstracts they arc reading and the text passages they highlight. In this thesis, we posed three user experiment research questions: U-Ql: Do users prefer using the prototype reading tool, LiteraryMark, over a traditional keyword search engine to retrieve Wikipedia articles while reading abstracts? The results from the user experiment conducted in this thesis indicate that for passages of three words or less, there was a strong preference for using LiteraryMark instead of a search engine. For larger passages, however, preferences were more varied; over half the participants cither preferred to use a search engine or had no particular preference. U-Q2: Does the use of the prototype reading tool, LiteraryMark, improve the reported level of understanding that users have while reading abstracts? The results from the user experiment conducted in this thesis show that the understanding levels that participants reported significantly improved when they used LiteraryMark. These results provide evidence that LiteraryMark helps people understand academic abstracts. U-Q3: Does the use of the prototype reading tool, LiteraryMark, improve the reported level of confidence that users have in their understanding while reading abstracts? Similar to the reported understanding levels, the results from the user experiment conducted in this thesis show that the confidence levels that participants reported significantly improved when they used LiteraryMark. These results provide evidence that LiteraryMark improves the confidence that people have in their understandings of academic abstracts that they arc reading. reading tool, LitcraryMark, is a good alternative to the traditional search engine for looking up Wikipcdia articles related to short passages while reading, Furthermore, it has identified a user task where the retrieval of a single relevant article is more important than providing a list of possible relevant search results. People who are reading want to look up explanatory information, like definitions, quickly without the distractions associated with traditional search engine functions.
Cooperation and quality in Wikipedia +We have shown that the high-quality articles in Wikipedia are distinguished from the rest by a larger number of edits and distinct editors, having carefully controlled for article visibility, popularity, and age. Furthermore, we demonstrated more intense patterns of cooperation in the high-quality articles than in other articles. These findings are in contrast to observations of cooperative efforts in other domains where result quality does not necessarily increase with the number of collaborators. While we did not explore the question of how Wikipedia succeeds where other large collaborative ventures fail, possible reasons include the efficiency of the wiki interface, the Wikipedia community’s strong emphasis on coordination and organization [32], and details of the processes and policies used to facilitate cooperation [23]. Additionally, we have have shown that althoughWikipedia is a complex system in which of millions of individually unpredictable editors collaborate in an unscheduled and virtually uncontrolled fashion, article growth follows a very simple overall pattern on average. This pattern implies that a small number of articles, corresponding to topics of high relevance or visibility, accrete a disproportionately large number of edits, while the vast majority of articles experience far less activity. Subjects of particular importance or popularity are thus naturally brought to the forefront of quality, validating Wikipedia as a successful collaborative effort.
Creating, destroying, and restoring value in Wikipedia +Our view-based metrics let us both sharpen previous results and go beyond them. Others have shown that 1% of Wikipedia editors contributed about half of edits [6]. We show that 1/10th of 1% of editors contributed nearly half of the value, measured by words read. Others have shown that one type of damage was repaired quickly [20]. We show this for all types of damage. We also show what this result means for readers: 42% of damage is repaired almost immediately, i.e., before it can confuse, offend, or mislead anyone. Nonetheless, there are still hundreds of millions of damaged views. We categorize the types of damage that occured, show how often they occured, describe their potential impact on readers, and discuss how hard (or easy) they are to detect automatically. We give examples of especially impactful damage to illustrate these points. Finally, we show that the probability of encountering damage increased exponentially from January 2003 to June 2006. What are the implications of our results? First, because a very small proportion of Wikipedia editors account for most of its value, it is important to keep them happy, for example by ensuring that they gain appropriate visibility and status. However, turnover is inevitable in any online community. Wikipedia should also develop policies, tools, and user interfaces to bring in newcomers, teach them community norms, and help them become effective editors. Second, we speculate that the exponential increase in the probability of encountering damage was stopped by the widespread use of anti-vandalism bots. It is likely that vandals will continue working to defeat the bots, leading to an arms race. Thus, continued work on automatic detection of damage is important. Our results suggest types of damage to focus on; the good news is that the results show little subtlety among most vandals. We also generally believe in augmentation, not automation. That is, we prefer intelligent task routing [7] approaches, where automation directs humans to potential damage incidents, but humans make the final decision.
Creative commons international the international license porting project +Creative Commons’ licenses and other tools provide an additional option for copyright creators and right holders to structure their rights in a more flexible way. In this way, the “best-of both-worlds” is offered: a way to protect creative works while encouraging certain uses of them, tailored to each creators individual preference. Creative Commons’ global porting project ensures that this new way of balancing copyright can be exercised on an international level and at the same time helps to increase the global commons of easily accessible content. Concurrently, a network of international legal and technical experts has been built to collaborate on the internationalization of the core Creative Commons licensing suite, license maintenance and legal commentary on new license versions. Although with the support of the international network the Creative Commons licensing suite has been successfully ported to more than 50 jurisdictions, there are still some interesting legal questions to be discussed and researched. In particular, questions of Private International Law and how Creative Commons licensing can best interact with and become compatible with other open content licensing models are two topics that need to be addressed in order to complete the international project and achieve an internationally functioning structure. There is no doubt that there are still many problems to be solved, but there is also no doubt that many of these issues can be resolved by the international network and the global Creative Commons community itself.
Credibility judgment and verification behavior of college students concerning Wikipedia +The major findings of this study include the following: peripheral cues were not related to credibility judgments across genres, although peripheral cues affected credibility judgments within the health genre. Genre was not related to credibility judgment. It appears that the effect of peripheral cues mattered more for the health genre than the entertainment genre. However, the effect was not statistically significant, suggesting further research. With respect to verification behavior, despite a higher percentage of self–reports than the experiment, the difference was not statistically significant. Finally, non–verification group displayed a higher level of satisficing than the verification group. The higher the respondents displayed a level of satisficing regarding Wikipedia compared to that of aspiration, the less the respondents verified information, despite its insignificant statistical result. These patterns may indicate the possibility of an explanation of non–verification behavior in the framework of the theory of bounded rationality, which suggests further research.
Cross-cultural analysis of the Wikipedia community +In conclusion, this research sheds light on how CoPs operate by analyzing norms of behaviors. In particular, the four Wikipedias that we examined provided exemplars of CoPs that exist in different cultural environments. Future research should expand the number of languages. As there are few studies of cross-cultural analysis about online CoPs, theWikipedias provided nice testbeds to examine variations
Cross-language plagiarism detection +The evaluation covers three experiments with two aligned corpora, the comparable Wikipedia corpus and the parallel JRC-Acquis corpus. In the experiments the models are employed in different tasks related to cross-language ranking in order to determine whether or not they can be used to retrieve documents known to be highly similar across languages. Our findings include that the CL-C3G model and the CLESA model are in general better suited for this task, while CL-ASA achieves good results on professional and automatic translations. CL-CNG outperforms CL-ESA and CL-ASA. However, unlike the former, CL-ESA and CL-ASA can also be used on language pairs whose alphabet or syntax are unrelated.
Crossing textual and visual content in different application scenarios +We have presented a framework for accessing multimodal data. First of all, the theoretical contribution is the extension of the principle of trans-media feedback, into a metric view: the definition of trans-media similarities. As it was shown, these new similarity measures of cross-content enables to find illustrative images for a text, to annotate an image, cluster or retrieve multi-modal objects. Moreover, the trans-media similarities are not specific to image and text: they can be applied to any mixture of media ( speech, video, text ) or views of an object. Most importantly, we have shown how these techniques can be used in two use cases: the travel blog assistant system and the multimedia browsing tool. These two applications stress the necessity of cross-media systems, where no monomedia systems can solve the user’s problem, nor address all the different user’s need at the same time.
Crowdsourcing: how and why should libraries do it? +Crowdsourcing has not been attempted on any significant scale by libraries to date, but could prove to be the most useful tool a library can have in the future. If the facts known about crowdsourcing and the tips outlined in this article are applied any crowdsourcing project that is ‘for the common good’ and initiated by a non‐profit making organisation such as a library is likely to be successful. If the public are given a high level of trust and responsibility they will respond with loyalty and commitment as has been demonstrated in the crowdsourcing sites discussed. There is huge potential for libraries to harness digital volunteers. Libraries need to give up ‘power and control’ thinking and look to freedom instead. Harriet Rubin, business publisher and author talking about success says “Freedom is actually a bigger game than power. Power is about what you can control. Freedom is about what you can unleash”17. And librarians need to be courageous about this. Dr John C. Maxwell , leadership expert and author talking on how to generate momentum in the workplace says “Passion energizes your talent and rubs off on those around you. If you have courage then you will influence people based on your passionate convictions”18 . Do we have the courage, and dare we give users something greater than power – freedom?
Cultural configuration of Wikipedia: measuring autoreferentiality in different languages +In this study, first we determined with a simple technique method the scope of the local content in WP language editions, which is in average a 24%. Choosing key words which are very tight to each language like the territories where they are spoken proved right to obtain local content, although a good choice of key words like the territory names and gentilics from the language edition was key to avoid losing content. Most of content comes from the main territory name. While this selection could have been influenced by the noisy category structure, studying after the category memberships as a feature of the content and discovering local content has more categories memberships reinforced the method. Our results according to our methodology for creating an index showed that autoreferentiality value can increase due to several dimensions.
Cultural differences in collaborative authoring of Wikipedia +The findings of this exploratory study show that content analysis methods can be useful for investigating cultural differences in wiki communities. The methodology further demonstrated that valuable information can be extracted from the history page of a wiki, by categorizing and then relating it to cultural dimensions. The study shows that the Internet—and Wikipedia in particular—is not a culturally neutral space, but that differences in behavior across cultures can be observed. The amount and strength of the correlations between changes made in Wikipedia and Hofstede’s cultural dimension shows that cultural differences that are observed in the real world can be related, carefully, to the virtual world. Our study thus enhances the validity of previous studies that have observed cultural differences on the World Wide Web (e.g., Singh & Baack, 2004; Singh, Zhao, & Hu, 2003; Tsikriktsis, 2002). These findings give rise to implications regarding how aspects of collaborative online work are influenced by pre-existing cultural differences. For example, as indicated by the significant negative correlation between the Power Distance Index and the category Delete Link, as well as the similar trend in Delete Information, people of a country with a high Power Distance Index, such as the French, are likely to feel uncomfortable about deleting others’ work. It is therefore advisable not to expect or require it of them in collaborative online work. These findings provide useful indications for understanding the behavior of people from another culture in cross-cultural online communication (e.g., online communities with international members). People from a given culture are likely to have attributes and behaviors concerning online communication according to their cultural background. If we understand the way people behave in online communication, the effectiveness of this communication or work can be increased and misunderstandings and problems may be minimized. The knowledge gained from this project also has implications for how to improve the design of online communities, as it is advisable to consider cultural differences and approach the community according to the cultural backgrounds of the members. One should offer communication and collaborative work tools suitable to the cultural preferences of the users. For example, if the users of a community come from a masculine country such as Japan, they—according to our data—are likely to be more active in adding and clarifying information. This can be interpreted as their desire to make the content grow, develop, and succeed. The design of a community should provide functions in the community that support this motivation by, for example, identifying the total number of edits made (‘‘you have made a total of 25,434 edits’’) or giving rewards in the form of rank to members who contribute frequently. People froma country with a high Power Distance are, according to the data,more reluctant to delete information. It is believed that the reason for this is that deletions are powerful actions that people from such countries do not think they have the right or privilege to do. For the design of a community for these people it might therefore be advisable to provide a function similar to deletions but use terminology that would make it appear like a less powerful action, e.g., hide information instead of delete it.

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DBpedia - a crystallization point for the web of data +The DBpedia project showed that a rich corpus of diverse knowledge can be obtained from the large scale collaboration of end-users, who are not even aware that they contribute to a structured knowledge base. The resulting DBpedia knowledge base covers a wide range of di erent domains and connects entities across these domains. The knowledge base represents the conceptual agreement of thousands of Wikipedia editors and evolves as conceptualizations By allowing complex queries to be asked against Wikipedia content, the DBpedia knowledge base has the potential to revolutionize the access to Wikipedia. In the context of classic Web search engines, the knowledge base can be used to relate search terms to entities and to improve search results based on DBpedia's conceptual structure. The utility of the knowledge base as interlinking hub for the Web of Data is demonstrated by the increasing number of data sources that decide to set RDF links to DBpedia and the growing number of annotation tools that use DBpedia identi ers. Already today, the resulting Web of Data around DBpedia forms an exciting test-bed to develop, compare, and evaluate data integration, reasoning, and uncertainty management techniques, and to deploy operational Semantic Web applications.
DBpedia: a nucleus for a web of open data +As future work, we will rst concentrate on improving the quality of the DBpedia dataset. We will further automate the data extraction process in order to increase the currency of the DBpedia dataset and synchronize it with changes in Wikipedia. In parallel, we will keep on exploring di erent types of user interfaces and use cases for the DBpedia datasets. Within the W3C Linking Open Data community project18, we will interlink the DBpedia dataset with further datasets as they get published as Linked Data on the Web. We also plan to exploit synergies between Wikipedia versions in different languages in order to further increase DBpedia coverage and provide quality assurance tools to the Wikipedia community. Such a tool could for instance notify a Wikipedia author about contradictions between the content of infoboxes contained in the di erent language versions of an article. Interlinking DBpedia with other knowledge bases such as Cyc (and their use as back-ground knowledge) could lead to further methods for (semi-) automatic consistency checks for Wikipedia content. DBpedia is a major source of open, royalty-free data on the Web. We hope that by interlinking DBpedia with further data sources, it could serve as a nucleus for the emerging Web of Data.
Debating Information Control in Web 2.0. The Case of Wikipedia vs. Citizendium +It is obvious that Web 2.0 environments in general and the Wiki platform in particular open up an important discussion on information control and its bearing on the blurred distinction between consumers, mediators and producers of information. Furthermore, by bringing out the multi-faceted nature of information control in Web 2.0, or more specifically of its perception, the present analysis also highlights some of the challenges individuals are faced with in their different roles in contemporary online environments; challenges arising from the unstable nature of abstract knowledge systems and a consequent need for increased reflexivity. Inevitably, it seems to us, this also has bearings on how we understand the ways in which people in current and future online environments create trust and reflect upon authority, an issue that requires further deliberation in future research.
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