Difference between revisions of "Gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia, an unorthodox information source?"

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{{Publication
 
{{Publication
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|type=Journal article
 
|title=Gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia, an unorthodox information source?
 
|title=Gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia, an unorthodox information source?
|authors=S Lim, N Kwon
+
|authors=Sook Lim, Nahyun Kwon
 
|published_in=Library & Information Science Research
 
|published_in=Library & Information Science Research
|type=Journal article
+
|year=2010
|peer_reviewed=Yes
+
|month=July
|article_language=English
+
 
|volume=32
 
|volume=32
 
|issue=3
 
|issue=3
|month=July
 
|year=2010
 
 
|pages=212-220
 
|pages=212-220
|url=http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=4&SID=3D9@K9HgCKnBM85J1eH&page=1&doc=16
+
|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740818810000356
|abstract=This study examined gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia. Data were collected using a Web survey in spring 2008. The study used a convenient sample that consisted of students who had taken an introductory undergraduate course at a large public university in the Midwestern United States. A total of 134 out of 409 students participated in the study. As information consumers, male students used Wikipedia more frequently than their female counterparts did. With respect to the purposes of Wikipedia use, male students used Wikipedia for entertainment or idle reading more than their female counterparts, while there were no gender differences regarding Wikipedia use for other purposes. Male students were more likely to discount the risks involved when using Wikipedia information compared to their female counterparts. Furthermore, male students had higher ratings than female students regarding most aspects of Wikipedia, including outcome expectations, perceptions about its information quality, belief in the Wikipedia project itself, emotional states while using Wikipedia, confidence in evaluating information quality, and further exploration. Finally, there was no gender difference regarding the number of years of Wikipedia use. However, male students reported having more positive experiences with the information quality of Wikipedia than their female counterparts. Overall, the findings of this study were consistent with those of previous studies concerning gender. Given the acknowledgment of the knowledge value of Wikipedia in recent literature, it seems that there are more advantages to using Wikipedia than there are disadvantages. The current study shows that male students seem to enjoy such benefits more than female students and may have more opportunities to develop their information literacy skills than female students by actively using Wikipedia. This suggests that educators need to encourage female students in particular to explore Wikipedia strategically as an initial information source so that they can develop their information literacy skills for unconventional sources. {(C)} 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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|peer_reviewed=Yes
 +
|added_by_wikilit_team=Added on initial load
 +
|article_language=English
 +
|abstract=This study examined gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia. Data were collected using a Web survey in spring 2008. The study used a convenient sample that consisted of students who had taken an introductory undergraduate course at a large public university in the Midwestern United States. A total of 134 out of 409 students participated in the study. As information consumers, male students used Wikipedia more frequently than their female counterparts did. With respect to the purposes of Wikipedia use, male students used Wikipedia for entertainment or idle reading more than their female counterparts, while there were no gender differences regarding Wikipedia use for other purposes. Male students were more likely to discount the risks involved when using Wikipedia information compared to their female counterparts. Furthermore, male students had higher ratings than female students regarding most aspects of Wikipedia, including outcome expectations, perceptions about its information quality, belief in the Wikipedia project itself, emotional states while using Wikipedia, confidence in evaluating information quality, and further exploration. Finally, there was no gender difference regarding the number of years of Wikipedia use. However, male students reported having more positive experiences with the information quality of Wikipedia than their female counterparts. Overall, the findings of this study were consistent with those of previous studies concerning gender. Given the acknowledgment of the knowledge value of Wikipedia in recent literature, it seems that there are more advantages to using Wikipedia than there are disadvantages. The current study shows that male students seem to enjoy such benefits more than female students and may have more opportunities to develop their information literacy skills than female students by actively using Wikipedia. This suggests that educators need to encourage female students in particular to explore Wikipedia strategically as an initial information source so that they can develop their information literacy skills for unconventional sources.
 +
|doi=dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2010.01.003
 +
|gscites=2930202882209571745
 +
|topics=Reader perceptions of credibility, Domain-specific student readership
 +
|domains=Information science, Communications, Education, Journalism
 
|research_questions=This study explores the following major research questions:
 
|research_questions=This study explores the following major research questions:
  
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7. Finally, are there gender differences in years of Wikipedia use and past experiences with its information quality?
 
7. Finally, are there gender differences in years of Wikipedia use and past experiences with its information quality?
 
+
|theory_type=Analysis
 
+
|topics=Reader perceptions of credibility, Domain-specific student readership
+
|domains=Information science
+
|theory_type=Analysis  
+
 
|wikipedia_coverage=Main topic
 
|wikipedia_coverage=Main topic
 
|theories=Some researchers have looked into emotions in relation to human information behavior. Nahl (2005) affective load theory claims that positive emotions interact with cognitive strategies to lower ambiguity and cognitive overload. This theory has explained how positive emotion helps information searchers quickly re-establish cognitive strategies that can help perform task-relevant activities. According to Isen, Daubman & Gorgoglione (1987), positive emotion facilitates learning by simplifying the task and making research more efficient. Furthermore, Kwon (2008) suggested that students who had more positive emotion were more likely to demonstrate better critical thinking skills, whereas students with negative dispositions tended to exhibit poorer critical thinking skills.
 
|theories=Some researchers have looked into emotions in relation to human information behavior. Nahl (2005) affective load theory claims that positive emotions interact with cognitive strategies to lower ambiguity and cognitive overload. This theory has explained how positive emotion helps information searchers quickly re-establish cognitive strategies that can help perform task-relevant activities. According to Isen, Daubman & Gorgoglione (1987), positive emotion facilitates learning by simplifying the task and making research more efficient. Furthermore, Kwon (2008) suggested that students who had more positive emotion were more likely to demonstrate better critical thinking skills, whereas students with negative dispositions tended to exhibit poorer critical thinking skills.
  
Finally, according to Lim (2009), one of the positive consequences of using Wikipedia is that students tend to explore information further by following the links on Wikipedia articles. However, it may be possible that the degree of exploration for further information and any benefits from such exploration differ according to gender due to different Web searching behaviors and other factors. Roy and Chi (2003) reported that boys tend to follow up on more hits and click on more links than girls while searching the Web. Other researchers point out the tendency of men to experiment with new or risky tasks/activities. For instance, in a study examining the readiness to use self-service technologies, Elliott and Hall (2005) found that male students displayed a stronger desire than females to experiment with new technologies. Similarly, Kim et al. (2007) reported that men tend to show a greater fondness for the latest information technology products than women. In addition, according to social control theory, men (sons) are freer to develop stronger risk preferences than women (daughters) because women are more constrained than men in patriarchal families, providing an explanation for why men are more likely to explore a variety of risky activities than women (Grasmick et al., 1996 H.G. Grasmick, J. Hagan, B.S. Blackwell and B.J. Arneklev, Risk preferences and patriarchy: Extending power-control theory, Social Forces 75 (1) (1996), pp. 177–199. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (31)Grasmick, Hagan Blackwell & Arneklev 1996). This theory implies that different socializations result in different risk preferences between genders.
+
Finally, according to Lim (2009), one of the positive consequences of using Wikipedia is that students tend to explore information further by following the links on Wikipedia articles. However, it may be possible that the degree of exploration for further information and any benefits from such exploration differ according to gender due to different Web searching behaviors and other factors. Roy and Chi (2003) reported that boys tend to follow up on more hits and click on more links than girls while searching the Web. Other researchers point out the tendency of men to experiment with new or risky tasks/activities. For instance, in a study examining the readiness to use self-service technologies, Elliott and Hall (2005) found that male students displayed a stronger desire than females to experiment with new technologies. Similarly, Kim et al. (2007) reported that men tend to show a greater fondness for the latest information technology products than women. In addition, according to social control theory, men (sons) are freer to develop stronger risk preferences than women (daughters) because women are more constrained than men in patriarchal families, providing an explanation for why men are more likely to explore a variety of risky activities than women (Grasmick et al., 1996 H.G. Grasmick, J. Hagan, B.S. Blackwell and B.J. Arneklev, Risk preferences and patriarchy: Extending power-control theory, Social Forces 75 (1) (1996), pp. 177–199. Full Text via CrossRef
 
+
|research_design=Statistical analysis
Items regarding verbal persuasion, emotional state, and outcome expectations were developed based on the literature of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986 A. Bandura, Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J (1986).[Bandura, 1986], [Bandura, 1997] and [Compeau & Higgins, 1995]). Verbal persuasion was defined as others’ verbal influence in using Wikipedia. Emotional state was defined as a positive or negative emotional condition when using Wikipedia. Outcome expectation was defined as one's expectation of the information quality and anticipated benefits of using Wikipedia. Items for information utility, defined as the ease, convenience, and usefulness of information, were developed based on the literature of Web behavior (Rieh & Hilligoss, 2007). Items for information evaluation self-efficacy, defined as one's confidence in evaluating information, were developed based on Bandura's concept of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986). Items of past experience quality, defined as a positive or negative direct experience with the information quality of Wikipedia, were developed based on the literature of news/Web credibility and social cognitive theory described above. Finally, items for purposes of information use, criticality of risk, and further exploration were developed in an exploratory manner. Operational definitions of each variable are presented in Table 1. Each of the above variables was scored using a seven-point scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree), or from 1 (not at all) to 7 (a lot). The variables are presented in Table 1. Finally, the variables for years of Wikipedia use, the frequency of Wikipedia use in the past semester, and library database use in the past semester were scored using a five-point scale: the variable of years of Wikipedia use, ranged from 1 (less than one year) to 5 (four or more years). The variables of both the frequency of Wikipedia use and library database use in the past semester ranged from 1 (zero) to 5 (more than 15 times). As described above, “Wikipedia use” refers to its consumption, not its production.
+
|data_source=Survey responses
 
+
|collected_data_time_dimension=Cross-sectional
|research_design=Case study
+
|unit_of_analysis=User
|collected_datatype=Survey
+
|collected_data_time_dimension=N/A
+
|unit_of_analysis=Article
+
 
|wikipedia_data_extraction=N/A
 
|wikipedia_data_extraction=N/A
|wikipedia_page_type=Article
+
|wikipedia_page_type=N/A
|wikipedia_language=Not specified
+
|wikipedia_language=English
 
|conclusion=This study highlighted gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia. Overall, this study was consistent with previous studies. Male students had more positive or active attitudes, emotions, and behaviors toward this unconventional (or nonauthoritative) information source than their female counterparts, whereas female students displayed more cautious or conservative attitudes, emotions, and behaviors than their male counterparts. The study contributes to our understanding of the gender perspectives of information behavior in an unconventional information environment by providing new knowledge of gender differences concerning Wikipedia. In addition, the study findings have implications for future studies that examine gender differences in similar Web 2.0 information environments in which Internet users increasingly seek and obtain information. Finally, this study helps educators and librarians develop appropriate information literacy programs intended to narrow gender gaps concerning Web 2.0 information sources.
 
|conclusion=This study highlighted gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia. Overall, this study was consistent with previous studies. Male students had more positive or active attitudes, emotions, and behaviors toward this unconventional (or nonauthoritative) information source than their female counterparts, whereas female students displayed more cautious or conservative attitudes, emotions, and behaviors than their male counterparts. The study contributes to our understanding of the gender perspectives of information behavior in an unconventional information environment by providing new knowledge of gender differences concerning Wikipedia. In addition, the study findings have implications for future studies that examine gender differences in similar Web 2.0 information environments in which Internet users increasingly seek and obtain information. Finally, this study helps educators and librarians develop appropriate information literacy programs intended to narrow gender gaps concerning Web 2.0 information sources.
 +
|comments=While male students were more positive, "female students displayed more cautious or conservative attitudes, emotions, and behaviors" towards Wikipedia.
 +
}}
 +
The domain here has presently "Information science", "communication", "education" and "Journalism". It is unclear why "journalism" is there and why not "Library science"?
  
 +
"Unit of analysis" is not "Article", but rather "subject" or "user"?
  
|comments=While male students were more positive, "female students displayed more cautious or conservative attitudes, emotions, and behaviors" towards Wikipedia.
+
"Collected data time dimension" could be said to be "cross-sectional" as the survey is cross-sectional. However, as no Wikipedia data is collected it might also be N/A!?
}}
+
 
 +
A survey should have a "research design" as a "statistical analysis" rather than "Case study.

Latest revision as of 20:28, January 30, 2014

Publication (help)
Gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia, an unorthodox information source?
Authors: Sook Lim, Nahyun Kwon [edit item]
Citation: Library & Information Science Research 32 (3): 212-220. 2010 July.
Publication type: Journal article
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Database(s):
DOI: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2010.01.003.
Google Scholar cites: Citations
Link(s): Paper link
Added by Wikilit team: Added on initial load
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Gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia, an unorthodox information source? is a publication by Sook Lim, Nahyun Kwon.


[edit] Abstract

This study examined gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia. Data were collected using a Web survey in spring 2008. The study used a convenient sample that consisted of students who had taken an introductory undergraduate course at a large public university in the Midwestern United States. A total of 134 out of 409 students participated in the study. As information consumers, male students used Wikipedia more frequently than their female counterparts did. With respect to the purposes of Wikipedia use, male students used Wikipedia for entertainment or idle reading more than their female counterparts, while there were no gender differences regarding Wikipedia use for other purposes. Male students were more likely to discount the risks involved when using Wikipedia information compared to their female counterparts. Furthermore, male students had higher ratings than female students regarding most aspects of Wikipedia, including outcome expectations, perceptions about its information quality, belief in the Wikipedia project itself, emotional states while using Wikipedia, confidence in evaluating information quality, and further exploration. Finally, there was no gender difference regarding the number of years of Wikipedia use. However, male students reported having more positive experiences with the information quality of Wikipedia than their female counterparts. Overall, the findings of this study were consistent with those of previous studies concerning gender. Given the acknowledgment of the knowledge value of Wikipedia in recent literature, it seems that there are more advantages to using Wikipedia than there are disadvantages. The current study shows that male students seem to enjoy such benefits more than female students and may have more opportunities to develop their information literacy skills than female students by actively using Wikipedia. This suggests that educators need to encourage female students in particular to explore Wikipedia strategically as an initial information source so that they can develop their information literacy skills for unconventional sources.

[edit] Research questions

"This study explores the following major research questions:

1. Are there gender differences regarding Wikipedia use and library database use?

2. Do female and male students use Wikipedia for different purposes?

3. Is there a gender difference regarding Wikipedia use in relation to the perception of risk?

4. Are there gender differences in the outcome expectations of Wikipedia, perceptions, beliefs, verbal persuasion, emotional state toward Wikipedia and its information utility such as ease, convenience and usefulness?

5. Is there a gender difference in confidence with respect to evaluating the quality of Wikipedia information?

6. Is there a gender difference in further exploring Wikipedia?

7. Finally, are there gender differences in years of Wikipedia use and past experiences with its information quality?"

Research details

Topics: Reader perceptions of credibility, Domain-specific student readership [edit item]
Domains: Information science, Communications, Education, Journalism [edit item]
Theory type: Analysis [edit item]
Wikipedia coverage: Main topic [edit item]
Theories: "Some researchers have looked into emotions in relation to human information behavior. Nahl (2005) affective load theory claims that positive emotions interact with cognitive strategies to lower ambiguity and cognitive overload. This theory has explained how positive emotion helps information searchers quickly re-establish cognitive strategies that can help perform task-relevant activities. According to Isen, Daubman & Gorgoglione (1987), positive emotion facilitates learning by simplifying the task and making research more efficient. Furthermore, Kwon (2008) suggested that students who had more positive emotion were more likely to demonstrate better critical thinking skills, whereas students with negative dispositions tended to exhibit poorer critical thinking skills.

Finally, according to Lim (2009), one of the positive consequences of using Wikipedia is that students tend to explore information further by following the links on Wikipedia articles. However, it may be possible that the degree of exploration for further information and any benefits from such exploration differ according to gender due to different Web searching behaviors and other factors. Roy and Chi (2003) reported that boys tend to follow up on more hits and click on more links than girls while searching the Web. Other researchers point out the tendency of men to experiment with new or risky tasks/activities. For instance, in a study examining the readiness to use self-service technologies, Elliott and Hall (2005) found that male students displayed a stronger desire than females to experiment with new technologies. Similarly, Kim et al. (2007) reported that men tend to show a greater fondness for the latest information technology products than women. In addition, according to social control theory, men (sons) are freer to develop stronger risk preferences than women (daughters) because women are more constrained than men in patriarchal families, providing an explanation for why men are more likely to explore a variety of risky activities than women (Grasmick et al., 1996 H.G. Grasmick, J. Hagan, B.S. Blackwell and B.J. Arneklev, Risk preferences and patriarchy: Extending power-control theory, Social Forces 75 (1) (1996), pp. 177–199. Full Text via CrossRef" [edit item]

Research design: Statistical analysis [edit item]
Data source: Survey responses [edit item]
Collected data time dimension: Cross-sectional [edit item]
Unit of analysis: User [edit item]
Wikipedia data extraction: N/A [edit item]
Wikipedia page type: N/A [edit item]
Wikipedia language: English [edit item]

[edit] Conclusion

"This study highlighted gender differences in information behavior concerning Wikipedia. Overall, this study was consistent with previous studies. Male students had more positive or active attitudes, emotions, and behaviors toward this unconventional (or nonauthoritative) information source than their female counterparts, whereas female students displayed more cautious or conservative attitudes, emotions, and behaviors than their male counterparts. The study contributes to our understanding of the gender perspectives of information behavior in an unconventional information environment by providing new knowledge of gender differences concerning Wikipedia. In addition, the study findings have implications for future studies that examine gender differences in similar Web 2.0 information environments in which Internet users increasingly seek and obtain information. Finally, this study helps educators and librarians develop appropriate information literacy programs intended to narrow gender gaps concerning Web 2.0 information sources."

[edit] Comments

"While male students were more positive, "female students displayed more cautious or conservative attitudes, emotions, and behaviors" towards Wikipedia."


Further notes[edit]

The domain here has presently "Information science", "communication", "education" and "Journalism". It is unclear why "journalism" is there and why not "Library science"?

"Unit of analysis" is not "Article", but rather "subject" or "user"?

"Collected data time dimension" could be said to be "cross-sectional" as the survey is cross-sectional. However, as no Wikipedia data is collected it might also be N/A!?

A survey should have a "research design" as a "statistical analysis" rather than "Case study.